PATHOLOGY

Reproductive

Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

Matching: Pregnancy complications

-?-ectopic pregnancy most often in fallopian tubes, predisposed by salpingitis (PID)
-?-abruption placentae premature separation of placenta; painful uterine bleeding, usually 3rd trimester; fetal death; may be associated with DIC
-?-placenta accrete defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach directly to myometrium; predisposed by prior C-section or inflammation; may have massive hemorrhage after delivery
-?-placenta previa attachment of placenta to lower uterine segment; may occlude cervical os; painless bleeding in any trimester
abruption placentae placenta accrete placenta previa ectopic pregnancy

Cervical pathology

Disordered epithelial growth; begins at basal layer & extends outward; classified as CIN 1, CIN 2, or CIN 3, depending on extend of dysplasia; associated with HPV; may progress to invasive carcinoma? -?-displasia or -?-carcinoma in situ

Often squamous cell carcinoma; pap smear can catch cervical dysplasia (koilocytes) before it progresses to invasive carcinoma? -?-invasive carcinoma

Matching: Uterine pathology

-?-endometrial carcinoma most common gynecologic malignancy; peak ages 55-65 yrs old; clinically presents with vaginal bleeding
-?-leiomyoma most common of all tumors in females; often presents with multiple tumors; ↑ incidence in blacks; malignant transformation is rare; estrogen sensitive   tumor size ↑ with pregnancy and ↓ with menopause; does not progress to leiomyosarcoma (leiomyomas are de nova)
-?-adenomyosis endometriosis within the myometrium
-?-leiomyosarcoma bulky tumors with areas of necrosis & hemorrhage, typically arising de novo (not from leiomyoma); ↑ incidence in blacks; highly aggressive tumor with tendency to recur; may protrude from cervix and bleed
-?-endometriosis non-neoplastic endometrial glands/stroma in abnormal locations outside the uterus; characterized by cyclic bleeding (menstrual type) from ectopic endometrial tissue resulting in blood-filled, "chocolate cysts"; ovary is most common site; manifests clinically as severe menstrual-related pain; often results in infertility
-?-endometrial hyperplasia abnormal endometrial gland proliferation usually caused by excess estrogen stimulation; ↑ risk for endometrial carcinoma; most commonly manifests clinically as vaginal bleeding
endometriosis adenomyosis endometrial hyperplasia endometrial carcinoma leiomyoma leiomyosarcoma

Matching: Ovarian cysts

-?-theca-lutein cyst often bilateral/multiple; due to gonadotropin stimulation; associated with choriocarcinoma & moles
-?-corpus luteum cyst hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum; menstrual irregularity
-?-follicular cyst distention of unruptured graafian follicle; may be associated with hyperestrinism & endometrial hyperplasia
-?-"chocolate cyst" blood-containing cyst from ovarian endometriosis; varies with menstrual cycle
follicular cyst corpus luteum cyst theca-lutein cyst "chocolate cyst"

Matching: Ovarian germ cell tumors

-?-teratoma constitutes 90% of germ cell tumors of the ovary
-?-choriocarcinoma like testicular version; ↑ hCG
-?-dysgerminoma analogous to male seminoma
-?-yolk sac tumor similar to testicular form; produces α-fetoprotein
dysgerminoma yolk sac tumor choriocarcinoma teratoma

Matching: Ovarian non-germ cell tumors

-?-Brenner tumor benign tumor that resembles bladder epithelium
-?-serous cystadenoma 20% of ovarian tumors; frequently bilateral, lined with fallopian tube; benign
-?-granulosa cell tumor secretes estrogen → precocious puberty (kids); can cause endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in adults; Call-Exner bodies
-?-serous cystadenocarcinoma 50% ovarian tumors; malignant & frequently bilateral
-?-mucinous cystadenocarcinoma malignant; pseudomyxoma peritonei; intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material
-?-ovarian fibroma bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts; Meigs' syndrome
style="white-space: nowrap" -?-mucinous cystadenoma multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium; benign
serous cystadenoma serous cystadenocarcinoma mucinous cystadenoma mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Brenner tumor ovarian fibroma granulosa cell tumor

Breast disease

Four histologic types of fibrocystic disease: -?-fibrosis, -?-cystic, -?-sclerosing, and -?-epithelial hyperplasma

Benign tumors:

-?-intraductal papilloma tumor of lactiferous ducts & presents with nipple discharge
-?-cystosarcoma phyllodes large, bulky mass of connective tissue & cysts which give breast surface a "leaflike" appearance
-?-fibroadenoma small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges; size & tenderness ↑ during pregnancy; and, not a precursor to breast cancer
fibroadenoma cystosarcoma phyllodes intraductal papilloma
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