PATHOLOGY

Hematologic

Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

Identify whether bleeding disorder is a platelet abnormality (microhemorrhage) [PA] or a coagulation factor defect (macrohemorrhage) [CFD]

-?-CFD hemarthroses (bleeding into the joints)
-?-PA petechiae
-?-PA purpura
-?-PA mucous membrane bleeding
-?-CFD easy bruising
-?-CFD prolonged PT and/or PTT
-?-PA prolonged bleeding time

Identify lymphoma trait as either associated with Hodgkin's [H] or with non-Hodgkin's [n-H]:

-?-n-H fewer constitutional signs/symptoms
-?-n-H peak incidence 20-40 years
-?-H localized, single group of nodes; extranodal rare; contiguous spread
-?-H good prognosis = ↑ lymphocytes, ↓ RS
-?-H Reed-Sternberg cells
-?-H mediastinal lymphadenopathy
-?-n-H associated with HIV & immunosuppression
-?-H low-grade fever, night sweats, weight loss
-?-n-H no hypergammaglobulinemia
-?-H 50% of cases associated with EBV
-?-H more common in med except nodular sclerosis type

Match leukemia to characteristic

-?-CLL older adults; lymphadenopathy; hepatosphlenomegaly; few symptoms; indolent course; ↑ smudge cells in peripheral blood smear; warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia; very similar to SLL (small lymphocytic lymphoma)
-?-ALL children; lymphoblasts; most responsive to therapy; associated with Down syndrome
-?-AML Auer rods; myeloblasts; adults
-?-CML most commonly associated with Philadelphia chromosome; myeloid stem cell proliferation; presents with ↑ neutrophils & metamyelocytes
ALL AML CLL CML

Chromosomal translocations: Match translocation to associated disorder

-?-t (11;22) Ewing's sarcoma
-?-t (11;14) Mantle cell lymphoma
-?-t (15;17) M3 type of AML (responsive to all-trans retinoic acid)
-?-t (8;14) Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
-?-t (14;18) Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activiation)
t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome t (8;14) t (14;18) t (15;17) t (11;22) t (11;14)
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