MICROBIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY

MICRO: Bacteriology

Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

-?-Obligate aerobes use an O2-dependent system to generate ATP; examples include Nocarida and Bacillus

Obligate anaerobes lack -?-catalase and/or supoxide dismutase and thus are susceptible to oxidative damage; they generally are -?-foul smelling (short chain fatty acids), difficult to culture, and produce gas in tissue (C02 and H2).

Obligate intracellular bugs -?-Rickettsia and -?-Chlamydia cannot make their own ATP.

Anthrax is caused by -?-Bacillus anthracis.

Actinomyces vs Nocardia: which one (and which type of that one) produces normal oral flora? -?-Actinomyces israelii

Gram-negative bugs are resistant to -?-penicillin G but may be susceptible to penicillin derivatives such as ampicillin.

Match to cause:
-?-(b) Bacillus cereus Reheated rice
-?-(f) E. coli Undercooked meat
-?-(g) Salmonella Poultry, meat, eggs
-?-(c) S. aureus Meats, mayonnaise, custard
-?-(a) Vibrio parahaemolyticus & V. vulnificus Contaminated seafood
-?-(d) Clostridium perfringens Reheated meat dishes
-?-(e) C. botulinum Improperly canned foods
(a) Vibrio parahaemolyticus & V. vulnificus (b) Bacillus cereus (c) S. aureus (d) Clostridium perfringens (e) C. botulinum (f) E. coli (g) Salmonella
Diarrhea: Match species with typical findings:
-?-(g) Yersinia enterocolitica Usually transmitted from pet feces
-?-(e) Campylobactere jejuni Comma- or S-shaped organisms; growth at 42°C
-?-(b) Vibrio cholerae Comma-shaped organisms
-?-(a) E.coli Ferments lactose
-?-(c) Salmonella Does not ferment lactose, motile
-?-(d) Shigella Does not ferment lactose, nonmotile, very low ID50
-?-(f) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Transmitted by seafood
(a) E.coli (b) Vibrio cholerae (c) Salmonella (d) Shigella (e) Campylobactere jejuni (f) Vibrio parahaemolyticus (g) Yersinia enterocolitica
Match:
-?-(e) Helicobacter pylori Causes gastritis & up to 90% of duodenal ulcers; gram negative rod
-?-(a) Enterobacteriaceae Diverse family including E. coli, salmonella and Proteus; all species have somatic (O) antigen & all ferment glucose and are oxidase negative
-?-(f) Lactose-fermenting enteric bacteria Grow pink colonies on MacConkey's agar; include Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter & Citrobacter
-?-(b) Haemophilus influenzae Causes epiglottis, meningitis, otitis media, and pneumonia; small gram-negative rod; most invasive disease caused by capsular type B
-?-(d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causes wound and burn infections
(a) Enterobacteriaceae (b) Haemophilus influenzae (c) Legionella pneumophila (d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (e) Helicobacter pylori (f) Lactose-fermenting enteric bacteria
Salmonella vs shigella:
-?-Both Which is non-lactose fermenters?
-?-Both Which cause bloody diarrhea?
-?-Salmonella Which is motile?
-?-Salmonella Which can have its symptoms prolonged with antibiotic treatments?
-?-Shigella Which is more virulent?

-?-vibrio cholerae toxin permanently activates G8, causing rice-water diarrhea.

-?-pertussis toxin permanently disables Gi, causing whooping cough.

Zoonotic bacteria
Species Disease Transmission Source
Borrelia Burgdorferi -?-Lyme disease Tick bite Ixodes ticks that live on deer & mice
Brucella spp. Brucellosis/undulant fever -?-Dairy products Contact with animals
Francisella tularensis Tularemia Tick bite -?-Rabbits, deer
Yersinia pestis -?-Plague Flea bite Rodents, especially prairie dogs
Pasteurella multocida Cellulitis -?-Animal bite Cats, dogs
Mycobacteria: Matching
-?-(b) M. Kansaii Pulmonary TB-like symptoms
-?-(c) M. scrofulaceum Cervical lymphadeniteis in kids
-?-(a) Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB, often resistant to multiple drugs
-?-(d) M. avium-intracellulare Often resistant to multiple drugs; causes disease in AIDS
-?-all four Acid-fast organisms
(a) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (b) M. Kansaii (c) M. scrofulaceum (d) M. avium-intracellulare

-?-Leprosy or -?-Hansen's disease disease is an acid-fast bacillus that likes cool temperatures; infects skin and superficial nerves; cannot be grown in vitro; treatment is long-term oral dapsone; toxicity is hemolysis and methemoglobineamia; alternate treatments include rifampin & a combination of clofazimine and dapsone

Matching:
-?-(a) Rickettsiae All except are transmitted by an arthropod vector and cause headache, fever, rash
-?-(b) Rocky Mountain spotted fever Symptoms rash on palms & soles (migrating to wrists, ankles, then trunk), headache, fever; endemic to East Coast
-?-(e) Chlamydiae Causes arthritis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and nongonococcal urethritis; treatment is erythromycin or tetracycline
-?-(d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae Classic cause of atypical "walking" pneumonia; X-ray looks worse than patient
-?-(c) Weil-Felix reaction Usually positive for typhus & Rocky Mountain spotted fever but negative for Q fever
(a) Rickettsiae (b) Rocky Mountain spotted fever (c) Weil-Felix reaction (d) Mycoplasma pneumoniae (e) Chlamydiae

Treponemes are -?-spirochetes.

Treponema pallidum causes -?-syphilis.

Treponema pertenue causes -?-yaws.

What is "yaws"?-?-Tropical infection that is not an STD although VDRL test is positive

Syphilis is caused by spirochete -?-Treponema pallidum

Syphilis matching:
-?- Gummas, aortitis, neurosyphils (tabes dorsalis), Argyll Robertson pupil
-?- disease with constitutional symptoms, maculopapular rash, condylomata lata
-?- Presents with painless chancre (localized disease)
(a) (b) (c)
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