Intraoperative Tests We Perform


Electromyography analyzes the electrical activity of nerve roots as they exit the spinal column.

Pedicle Screw Stimulation

Pedicle screw stimulation ensures adequate placement of pedicle screws within the lumbar spine.


Brainstem Auditory-Evoked Potentials evaluate the auditory tracts which traverse the brainstem.


Electroencephalogram examines the transient activity of the brain relative to ischemic changes and the metabolic state of cortical structures.

EcoG/Motor Mapping

Electrocorticography and Motor Mapping are used to identify the sensory and motor areas of the brain utilizing direct cortical stimulation.


Transcranial Motor-Evoked Potentials monitor the motor pathways in the lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord.


Somatosensory Evoked Potentials monitor the integrity of the sensory pathways in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord.


Visual Evoked Potentials are used to evaluate the pathways of the optic nerve and occipital lobe of the brain.


Trans-Cranial Doppler examines the blood flow through the cranial structures through a non-invaisive application

Microvascular Doppler is utilized during intra-cranial aneurysm surgery to confirm proper closure for cerebral aneurysm