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References

Behavioral Issues

Wedding D. Behavior & Medicine (2nd Edition). St. Louis, MO, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1995.

Bioethics

Bickel J. Promoting Medical Students’ Ethical Development: A Resource Guide. Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

Boyd EA & Bero LA. Assessing Faculty Financial Relationships With Industry: A Case Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(17), 2209-2214, 2000.

Cho MK, Ryo S, Schissel S & Rennie D. Policies on Faculty Conflicts of Interest at US Universities. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(17), 2203-2208, 2000.

Christakis DA & Feudtner C. Ethics in a Short White Coat: The Ethical Dilemmas that Medical Students Confront. Academic Medicine, 1993: 68:249-254.

Coutts LC & Rogers JC. Humanism: Is Its Evaluation Captured in Commonly Used Performance Measures? Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 2000: 12:28-32.

Feudtner C, Christakis DA & Christakis N. No Clinical Clerks Suffer Ethical Erosion? Students’ Perceptions of their Ethical Environment & Personal Development. Academic Medicine, 1994: 69:670-679.

Fost N. Genetic Diagnosis & Treatment: Ethical Considerations. AJDC, Vol. 147, p. 1190-1195, November 1993.

Fost N. Ethical Issues in Whistleblowing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1079, 2001.

Korn D. Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(17), 2234-2237, 2000.

Larkin GL. Evaluating Professionalism in Emergency Medicine: Clinical Ethical Competence. Acad Emerg Med. 1999, 6:302-311. (Residents)

Rajendran PR. Ethical Issues Involved in Disclosing Medical Errors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286,(9), 1078, 2001.

Robins LS, Braddock CH III & Fryer-Edwards KA. Using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Elements of Professionalism” for Undergraduate Ethics Education. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Steinman MA. Gifts to Physicians in the Consumer Marketing Era. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(17), 2243, 2000.

Wusthoff CJ. Medical Mistakes and Disclosure: The role of the Medical Student. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1080-1081, 2001.

Young RK (ed.): A Piece of My Mind: A Golden Rule: Remember the Gift. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(6), 648-650, 2001.

Young, RK (ed.). A Piece of My Mind: Financial Indigestion. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(17), 2156-2157, 2000.

Burnout

Dyrbye LN, Massie, FS, Anne Eacker A; Harper W, Power D, Durning SJ, Thomas MR, Moutier C, Satele D, Sloan J, Shanafelt TD. Relationship Between Burnout and Professional Conduct and Attitudes Among US Medical Students. Journal of the American Medical Association,. 2010;304(11):1173-1180.

Care of the Patient

Peabody FW. The Care of the Patient. JAMA 1927; 88:877-882.

Case Examples

(Including accounts by Physicians who become ill)

Donabedian A. An Expert on Health Care Evaluates His Own Case: Constructive Criticism We Must All Heed. The New York Times, Tuesday, June 12, 2001, p. D6.

Greger M. Heart Failure: Diary of a Third Year Medical Student. .

Kurland G. My Own Medicine. NY, Times, 2002.

Horton R. In the Danger Zone. In: Intensive Care: A Doctor’s Journal by John F. Murray, University of California Press, 1999.

Remen RN. My Grandfather’s Blessings: Stories of Strength, Refuge & Belonging. NY, Riverhead Books, 2001.

Charter on Professionalism

Brennan T, Blank L, Kimball H, et al. Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter. Annals of Internal Medicine, 136:243-246, 2002.

Maguire P. Charter on Professionalism. July 2001 ACP-ASIM Observer, Copyright 2001 by the American College of American Society of Internal Medicine.

Clerkships

Ginsburg S, Regehr G, Stern D & Lingard L. The Anatomy of the Professional Lapse: Bridging the Gap between Traditional Frameworks & Students’ Perceptions. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Saracen RT, Greenberg LW & Wilking AP. Twelve Tips for a Successful Clerkship. Medical Teacher, 1997, 19, 95-98.

Clinical Research

Emanuel EJ, Wendler D & Grady C. What Makes Clinical Research Ethical? Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(20), 2701-2711, May 2000.

Compassion

Glick SM. The Component Elements of Physician Compassion. Pharos, 1985, 48, 9-14.

Competency

Kuczewski MG. Developing Competency in Professionalism: The Potential & the Pitfalls. ACGME Bulletin, October 2001.

Culture

Scott CJ. Enhancing Patient Outcomes Through an Understanding of Intercultural Medicine: Guidelines for the Practitioner. Maryland Medical Journal, 46(4), 175-180, April 1997.

Death & Dying

Arnold RM, Bailey FA, Billings JA, et al. Pioneer Programs in Palliative Care: Nine Case Studies. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton NJ & Milbank Memorial Fund, New York, 2000.

Bedell SE, Cadenhead K, & Graboys TB. The Doctor’s Letter of Condolence. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(15), April 12, 2001.

Granet R. Surviving Cancer Emotionally: Learning How to Heal. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001.

Groopman J. Dying Words: How should doctors deliver bad news? New Yorker, October 28, 2002 pps 62-70.

Hurley AC & Volicer L. Alzheimer Disease: “It’s Okay, Mama, If You Want to Go, It’s Okay.” JAMA, 288(18), 2324-2331, November 2002.

Meier DE & Morrison RS. Autonomy Reconsidered. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346(14), April 4, 2002.

Rabow MW & Markowtz AJ. Responding to Requests for Physician-Assisted Suicide: “These are Uncharted Waters for Both of Us…” JAMA, 288(18), 2332, November 2002.

Smith WJ. Culture of Death: The Assault on Medical Ethics. Encounter Books, San Francisco CA, 2001.

Definitions

Epstein RM & Hundert EM. Defining & Assessing Professional Competence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(2), 2002.

Swick HM. Toward a Normative Definition of Medical Professionalism. Academic Medicine, 75(6), June 2000.

Emotions

Young RK (ed.). A Piece of My Mind: Crying in the Curriculum. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1017-1018, 2001.

Ethics

See Bioethics.

Evaluation

Arnold EL. Assessing Professional Behavior: Yesterday, Today, & Tomorrow. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Arnold EL, Blank LL, Race KEH & Cipparrone N. Can Professionalism be Measured? The Development of a Scale to Use in the Medical Environment. Academic Medicine, 1998, 73, 1119-1121.

Blumenthal D, Gokhale M, Campbell EG & Weissman JS. Preparedness for Clinical Practice: Reports of Graduating Residents at Academic Health Centers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1027-1033, 2001.

Donnelly MB, et al. An Objective Look at OSCE’s: Assessment of Residents’ Interpersonal Skills by Family Proctors & Standardized Patients: A Psychometric Analysis. Academic Medicine, 75, S93-95, 2000.

Ginsburg S, Regehr G, Hatala R, et al. Context, Conflict & Resolution.: A New Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Professionalism. Academic Medicine, 75(10), S6-S11, October 2001.

Hemmer PA, Hawkins R, Jackson JL & Pangaro LN. Assessing How Well Three Evaluation Methods Detect Deficiencies in Medical Students’ Professionalism in Two Settings of an Internal Medicine Clerkship. Academic Medicine, 75, 167-173, 2000.

Lee SK & Cowie SE. Medical Students & Remediation of Error. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1082-1083, 2001.

Lowitt NR. How Are We Doing? The Problem of In-Training Evaluation. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15, 605-606, August 2000

Misch DA. Evaluating Physicians’ Professionalism & Humanism: The Case for Humanism “Connoisseurs”. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Papadakis MA, et al. A Strategy for the Detection & Evaluation of Unprofessional Behavior in Medical Students. Academic Medicine, 74, p. 980-990, 1999.

Rattner SL, Louis DZ, Rabinowitz C, et al. Documenting & Comparing Medical Students’ Clinical Experiences. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1035-1040, 2001.

Turnbull J, MacFadyen J, van Barneveld C & Norman G. Clinical Work Sampling: A New Approach to the Problem of In-Training Evaluation. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15, 556-561, August 2000.

USCF School of Medicine Physicianship Evaluation Form. Academic Medicine, 74(9), 982-983, September 1999.

www.acgme.org/outcome/assess/toolbox.asp 

Faculty Development

Kay J. Development as an Educator. In: Handbook of Psychiatric Education and Faculty Development, edited by K Jay, Silberman EK & Pessar L. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1999.

General

Coles R, Testa R, O’Donnell J, Armstrong P & Anderson MB. A Life in Medicine: A Literary Anthology. New York, The New Press, 2002.

Cohen JJ. Our Compact with Tomorrow’s Doctors. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Embedding Professionalism in Medical Education: Assessment as a Tool for Implementation. NBME and AAMC 2003 

Project Professionalism. Sponsored by the American Board of Internal Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 1995.

Rothman DJ. Medical Professionalism -- Focusing on the Real Issues. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1284-1286

Wear D. The House of God: Another Look. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Wilkes M & Raven BH. Understanding Social Influence in Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 77(6), June 2002.

Gifts

Sah S, Loewenstein G. Effect of Reminders of Personal Sacrifice and Suggested Rationalizations on Residents' Self-Reported Willingness to Accept Gifts: A Randomized Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2010;304(11):1204-1211.

Humanism & Human Dimensions of Medical Education

Arnold RM, Povar GJ & Howell JD. The Humanities, Humanistic Behavior, & the Humane Physician: A Cautionary Note. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1987, 106, 313-318.

Hauck FR, Zyzanski SJ, Alemagno SA & Medalie JH. Patient Perceptions of Humanism in Physicians: Effects of Positive Health Behaviors. Family Medicine, 1990, 22, 447-452.

Hekelman FP, Snyder CW, Alemagno S, et al. Humanistic Teaching Attributes of Primary Care Physicians. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 1999, 7, 29-36.

Lazarus CJ, Chauvin SW, Rodenhauser P & Whitlock R. The Program for Professional Values & Ethics in Medical Education. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 12(4), 208-211.

Miller SZ & Schmidt HJ. The Habit of Humanism: A Framework for Making Humanistic Care a Reflexive Clinical Skill. Academic Medicine, 1999, 74, 800-803.

Nelson AR. Humanism & the Art of Medicine. JAMA, 1989, 262, 1228-1230.

Pellegrino ED. Educating the Humanist Physician: An Ancient Ideal Reconsidered. JAMA, 1974, 19, 95-98.

Learning on Patients vs Giving the Best Care Possible

Gawande, A. The Learning Curve: Like everyone else, surgeons need practice. That's where you come in. New Yorker Magazine January 28, 2002 pps 52-61.

Medical Errors/Patient Safety

Becher EC & Chassin MR. Taking Health Care Back: The Physician’s Role in Quality Improvement. Academic Medicine, 77(10), 953-962, October 2002.

Brennan TA. Physicians’ Professional Responsibility to Improve the Quality of Care. Academic Medicine, 77(10), 973-980, October 2002.

Chassin MR, Becher EC. The Wrong Patient. Annals of Internal Medicine, 136: 826-833, 2002.

Classen DC & Kilbridge PM. The Roles & Responsibility of Physicians to Improve Patient Safety within Health Care Delivery Systems. Academic Medicine, 77(10), 963-972, October 2002.

Complications: An Exchange. Sherwin B. Nuland and Mary Dilligan. New York Review of Books December 19, 2002 pps 88-89.

Goode LD, Clancy CM, Kimball HR, Meyer G & Eisenberg JM. When Is “Good Enough?” The Role & Responsibility of Physicians to Improve Patient Safety. Academic Medicine, 77(10), 947-952, October 2002.

Graber M, Gordon R, & Franklin N. Reducing Diagnostic Errors in Medicine: What's the Goal?” Academic Medicine, 77(1), 981-992, October 2002.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 

Larson EB. Measuring, Monitoring & Reducing Medical Harm from a Systems Perspective: A Medical Director’s Personal Reflection. Academic Medicine, 77(10), 993-1000, October 2002.

National Patient Safety Foundation.  

Orlander JD, Barber TW, & Finke BG. The Morbidity & Mortality Conference: The Delicate Nature of Learning from Error. October 2002, Academic Medicine.

National Patient Safety Foundation.

Orlander JD, Barber TW, & Finke BG. The Morbidity & Mortality Conference: The Delicate Nature of Learning from Error. October 2002, Academic Medicine.

Physical Activity

Cassel CK. Use It or Lose It: Activiy May Be the Best Treatment for Aging. JAMA, 288(18), 2333-2335, November 2002.

Garry JP & Whitley TW. Physical Activity Curriculum in US Medical Schools. Presented at the AAMC Annual Meeting, Washington DC, November 7, 2001.

Physician-Patient Relationships & Gifts

Adams D. Patients Respond to Good Bedside Manners. Health & Science, American Medical News, p. 40, April 16, 2001.

Hausman K. Medical Educators Overlook Doctor-Patient Relationship. Education & Training section, Psychiatric News, July 21, 2001.

Klein SD & Klein RE. Delivering Bad News: The Most Challenging Task in Patient Education. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 58(8), 660-663, 1987.

Lipson M. What Do You Day to a Child with AIDS? Hastings Center Report, p. 6-12, March-April, 1993.

Maguire P. Improving Communication with Cancer Patients. European Journal of Cancer, 15(10) 1514-1422, 1999.

Martin J. “Miss Manners”: Rude Docs are Unprofessional. The Baltimore Sun, Wednesday, May 2, 2001.

Physician Gender Effects in Medical Communication: A Meta-Analytic Review. Roter DL, Hall JA, Aoki Y. JAMA:288:756-763 2002

Reality Check III – Searching for Trust: America’s Message to Hospitals & Health Systems. Nationwide Focus Group Research by the American Hospital Association, p. 7, 1998-1999.

Roter DL, Hall JA & Aoki Y. Physician Gender Effects in Medical Communications. A Meta-Analytic Review. JAMA, 288:756-763, 2002.

Schneider CE. The Practice of Autonomy: Patients, Doctors & Medical Decisions. Oxford University Press, New York, 1988.

Welhage DF. How to Say It: Terminal Illness, Untimely Death, Congenital Problem, Handicap. Journal of the Indiana State Medical Association, p. 593-595, August, 1979.

www.nofreelunch.org 

Popular Media

Shem, S. House of God, Dell, NYC 1978

Universal Studios, Patch Adams, 1999

Prejudice

Jauhar S. Hidden in the World of Medicine, Discrimination & Stereotypes. The New York Times, Late Edition-Final, Section F, Page 6, Column 1, Tuesday, June 19, 2001.

Religion & Spirituality

Koenig HG. An 83-Year Old Woman with Chronic Illness & Strong Religious Beliefs. JAMA, 288(4), July 2002.

Neibuhr G. Believer & Skeptic See Spirituality in Medicine. In: Religion Journal section, The New York Times, p. A19, November 18, 2000.

Rolf G. Spirituality: Spirituality in Patient Care by Koenig H. JAMA, 288(12), September 2002.

McNeil D. Patients Teaching Students. The New York Times, p. F3, March 27, 2001.

Reporting Impaired Physicians

DesRoches CM, Sowmya R. Rao SR, Fromson JA, Birnbaum RJ, Iezzoni L, Vogeli C, Campbell EG. Physicians' Perceptions, Preparedness for Reporting, and Experiences Related to Impaired and Incompetent Colleagues. Journal of the American Medical Association 2010;304(2):187-193.

Responsibility & Accountability

Altman LK. The Proper Time to Tell Doctors What Will Be Expected of Them. In: Doctor’s World section, The New York Times, Tuesday, October 3, 1989.

Blank LL (ed). Report on the 1996 Summer Conference on Professional Responsibility, Professional Accountability: What is the ABIM’s Role? American Board of Internal Medicine, ABIM Communications, Philadelphia PA, 1997.

Spirituality and Medicine

Koenig HG: An 83-year-old woman with chronic illness and strong religious beliefs. JAMA 288:487-493 2002

Teaching Professionalism

Branch WT, Kern D, Haidet P, et al. Teaching the Human Dimensions of Care in Clinical Settings. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(9), 1067-1074, September 2001.

Charon R. Narrative Medicine: A Model for Empathy, Reflection, Profession & Trust. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(15), 1897-1902, October 2001.

Cruess RL & Cruess SR. Teaching Medicine as a Profession in the Service of Healing. Academic Medicine, 72(), 94-952, November, 977.

Cruess SR & Cruess RL. Education & Debate: Professionalism Must Be Taught. BMJ, 315, 1674-1677, December 20, 1977.

Lazarus CJ, Chauvin SW, Rodenhauser P & Whitlock R. The Program for Professional Values & Ethics in Medical Education. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 12(4), 208-211, 2000.

Ogle KM. Sometimes, the Doctor is Blind. The New York Times, November 6, 2001.

Remen N. Humanistic Medicine: Compliance. The New Physician, p. 7, 1977.

Remen N. Humanistic Medicine: Is Time the Real Enemy? The New Physician, p. 4, September 1977.

Remen N. Humanistic Medicine: Professionalism. The New Physician, p. 6-8, 1977.

Remen N. Humanistic Medicine: The Myth of Service. The New Physician, p. 3, May 1977.

Remen N. Humanistic Medicine: The Potential of Illness. The New Physician, p. 5, October 1977.

Time

Jauhar S. Teaching Hospitals Too Busy for Curiosity. The New York Times, p. D8, September 5, 2000.

Ludmerer K. Healing Patients & Medication. Washington University Magazine & Alumni News, p. 18-21, Summer 2000.

Women’s Health

Magrane D, Ephgrave K, Jacobs MB & Rusch R. Academic Medicine, 75(11), 1066-1070, November 2000.

More references:

http://www.professionalism.org/mdpr2000/biblio/biblio.htm