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Describe the action and spectrum of penicillins.
action: -?- inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, inhibiting cross-linking enzymes & activating autolytic enzymes that disrupt bacterial cell walls
spectrum: -?- streptococci, menigococci, pneumococci, Gram-positive bacilli, gonococci, spirochetes
Name the spectrum for methicillin. -?- staphylococci
Name the spectrum for ampicillin. -?- similar to penicillin G; also includes E. coli, P. mirabilis, and H influenzae
Name the spectrum for carbenicillin. -?- Gram-negative rods & especially useful for Pseudomonas species
Name the spectrum for cephalothin (first generation cephalosporin). -?- Gram-positive cocci, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae
Name the spectrum for cefamandole (second-generation cephalosporin). -?- greater activity against Gram-negative organisms than first-generation cephalosporins
Name the spectrum for cefoperazone (third-generation cephalosporin). -?- broader activity against resistant Gram-negative organisms; some derivatives penetrate the blood-brain barrier
Name the spectrum for imipenem. -?- wide action against Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative rods, and some anaerobes
Name the spectrum for aztreonam. -?- resistant to β-lactamases produced by Gram-negative rods
Match prototype drug to its action.
-?- (e) tetracycline Inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit, which interferes with binding of aminoacyl-tRNA
-?- (d) vancomycin Inhibits synthesis of cell wall mucopeptides (peptidoglycans)
-?- (a) erythromycin Inhibits protein synthesis by binding to part of the 50S ribosomal subunit
-?- (f) norfloxacin Inhibits topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase)
-?- (g) chloramphenicol Inhibits peptide bond formation by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting peptidyl transferase
-?- (c) trimethoprim Inhibit folic acid synthesis by competitive inhibition of dihydropteroate synthase
-?- (b) gentamicin Inhibits protein sythesis by binding to the 30S subunit of ribosomes which blocks formation of the initiation complex, causing misreading of code on the mRNA template & disrupting polysomes
-?- (c) trimethoprim Inhibits folic acid synthesis by inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase
(a) erythromycin (b) gentamicin (c) trimethoprim (d) vancomycin (e) tetracycline (f) norfloxacin (g) chloramphenicol (h) sulfonamides
Match prototype drug to its action.
-?- (b) erythromycin Gram-positive cocci, mycoplasma, corynebacteria, Legionella, Ureaplasma, Bordetella:
-?- (d) vancomycin Gram-positive bacteria, especially for resistant mutants
-?- (c) chloramphenicol Salmonella and Haemophilus infections and meningococcal & pneumococcal meningitis
-?- (h) gentamicin E. coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Serratia species
-?- (f) tetracycline Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, rickettsia, vibrio
-?- (a) sulfonamides Gram-positive & negative organisms, including chlamydia & nocardia
-?- (e) trimethoprim Used in combination with sulfamethoxazole
-?- (g) norfloxin Gram-negative organisms, including gonococci, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, C. jejuni, Enterobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella species
(a) sulfonamides (b) erythromycin (c) chloramphenicol (d) vancomycin (e) trimethoprim (f) tetracycline (g) norfloxin (h) gentamicin
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