Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

Degenerative diseases/cerebral cortex

-?-Alzheimers disease Most common cause of dementia in the elderly; associated with senile plaques (β-amyloid core) & neurofibrillary tangles

-?-Picks disease Associated with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies & is specific for the frontal & temporal lobes

Degenerative diseases/ basal ganglia & brain stem

-?-Parkinsons disease Associated with Lewy bodies & depigmentation of the substantia nigra; rare cases linked to exposure to MPTP

-?-Huntington disease Autosomal-dominant inheritance, chorea, dementia; atrophy of caudate nucleus

Intracranial hemorrhage

matching (item may be used more than once)
-?-subdural hematoma crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines
-?-epidural hematoma CT shows "biconcave disk" not crossing suture lines
-?-parenchymal hematoma caused by hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, diabetes mellitus, & tumor
-?-subarachnoid hemorrhage patients complain of "worst headache of my life"
-?-epidural hematoma lucid interval
-?-subarachnoid hemorrhage rupture of aneurysm or an AVM
-?-epidural hematoma rupture of middle meningeal artery, often 2° to fracture of temporal bone
-?-subarachnoid hemorrhage bloody or xanthochromic spinal tap
-?-subdural hematoma seen in elderly individuals, alcoholics, blunt trauma
-?-subdural hematoma venous bleeding (less pressure) with delayed onset of symptoms
epidural hematoma subdural hematoma subarachnoid hemorrhage parenchymal hematoma

Berry aneurysms:

occur at the -?-bifurcations in the circle of Willis; most common site is bifurcation of the -?-anterior communicating artery; rupture (most common complication) leads to hemorrhagic stroke/subarachnoid hemorrhage; associated with adult polycystic kidney disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and -?-Marfans syndrome.

Give the classic triad of multiple sclerosis:

S -?-Scanning speech
I -?-Intention tremor
N -?-Nystagmus

Demyelinating/dysmyelinating diseases

-?-PML, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with JC virus & seen in 2-4% of AIDS patients
-?-Guillain-Barré syndrome elevated CSF protein with normal cell count ("albumino-cytologic dissociation")
-?-MS ↑ prevalence with ↑ distance from the equator
-?-Guillain-Barré syndrome facial diplegia in 50% of cases
-?-MS patients can present with optic neuritis (sudden loss of vision), MLF syndrome, hemiparesis, hemisensory symptoms, or bladder/bowel incontinence

Cause of poliomyelitis?

-?-poliovirus, transmitted by the fecal-oral route

Symptoms of poliomyelitis?

-?-malaise, headache, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, sore throat, signs of LMN lesions

Findings of poliomyelitis?

-?-CSF with lymphocytic pleocytosis with slight elevation of protein; virus recovered from stool or throat


-?-simple partial Partial seizures in which awareness is intact
-?-complex partial Partial seizures in which awareness is impaired
-?-absence (petit mal) Generalized seizures characterized by a blank stare
-?-tonic Generalized seizures characterized by a stiffening
-?-myoclonic Generalized seizures characterized by quick, repetitive jerks
-?-atonic Generalized seizures characterized by "drop" seizures
-?-tonic-clonic (grand mal) Generalized seizures characterized by alternating stiffening & movement


-?-Wernickes (receptive) fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
-?-Brocas (expressive) nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension
-?-Brocas inferior frontal gyrus impairment
-?-Wernickes superior temporal gyrus impairment

Horner's syndrome: sympathectomy of face (lesion above T1):

P -?-Ptosis (slight drooping of eyelid)
A -?-Andhidrosis (absence of sweating) & flushing of affected side of face
M -?-Miosis (pupil constriction)
Horner's syndrome is associated with -?-Pancoasts tumor.

Tabes dorsalis:

degeneration of dorsal columns & dorsal roots due to -?-3° syphilis, resulting in impaired proprioception & locomotor -?-ataxia; associated with Charcot's joints, shooting (lightning) pain, Argyll Robertson pupils, and absence of -?-DTRs.


Enlargements of the central canal of spinal cord; crossing fibers of -?-spinothalamic tract are damaged; bilateral loss of pain and -?-temperature sensation in upper extremities with preservation of -?-touch sensation.

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