Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

Argyll Robertson pupil:

constricts with accommodation but is not reactive to -?-light; pathognomic for -?-3° syphilis.


1°(light chain deposition) seen with -?-multiple myeloma (most common cause) or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia; 2° (amyloid associated) can cause -?-nephritic syndrome in kidney - apple-green birefringence on -?-Congo red stain.

Aschoff body:

granuloma with -?-giant; Anitschkow's cells (activated hisiocytes) are found in -?-rheumatic heart disease.

Auer bodies (rods):

peroxidase-positive cytoplasmic inclusion in granulocytes and -?-myeloblasts; primarily seen in acute -?-promyelocytic leukemia (M3); treatment of AML M3 can release Auer rods → -?-DIC.

Matching: Casts in urine

-?-WBC casts inflammation in renal interstitium, tubules & glomeruli
-?-hyaline casts often seen in normal urine
-?-RBC casts glomerular inflammation, ischemia, malignant hypertension
-?-waxy casts seen in chronic renal failure
RBC casts WBC casts hyaline casts waxy casts

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate:

Nonspecific test that measures -?-acute-phase reactants; dramatically -?- with infection, malignancy, connective tissue disease, pregnancy, inflammatory disease, anemia; -?- with sickle cell anemia, CHF, polycythemia.

Ghon complex:

TB granulomas with lobar or -?-perihilar lymph node involvement; reflects 1° infection or -?-exposure.

Matching: Hyperlipidemia

-?-tendinous xanthoma lipid deposit in tendon, especially Achilles
-?-atheromata plaques in blood vessel walls
-?-xanthoma plaques in nodules composed of lipid-laden histiocytes in the skin, esp. the eyelids
-?-corneal arcus lipid deposit in cornea, nonspecific (arcus senilis)
atheromata xanthoma tendinous xanthoma corneal arcus

Psammoma bodies:

mnemonic PSaMMoma stands for? -?-Papillary (thyroid); Serous (ovary); Meningioma; Mesothelioma.

Matching: RBC forms

-?-poikilocytes nonuniform shapes in TTP/HUS, microvascular damage, DIC
-?-sickle cell sickle cell anemia
-?-elliptocyte hereditary elliptocytosis
-?-biconcave normal
-?-helmet cell, schistocyte DIC, traumatic hemolysis
-?-teardrop cell myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis
-?-macro-ovalocyte megaloblastic anemia, marrow failure
-?-target cell thalassemia, live disease, HbC
-?-burr cell TTP/HUS
-?-acanthocyte spiny appearance in abetalipoproteinemia
-?-spherocytes Hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolysis
biconcave spherocytes elliptocyte macro-ovalocyte helmet cell, schistocyte sickle cell teardrop cell acanthocyte target cell poikilocytes burr cell

Matching: HLA subtypes

-?-13, 17 psoriasis
-?-DR2 multiple schlerosis, hay fever
-?-DR7 steroid-responsive nephritic syndrome
-?-DR4 rheumatoid arthritis
-?-B27 Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Inflammatory bowel, Reiter's syndrome (PAIR)
-?-DR5 pernicious anemia → B12 deficiency
-?-DR3, DR4 diabetes mellitus, type 1
B27 13, 17 DR2 DR3, DR4 DR4 DR5 DR7

Reed-Sternberg cells:

distinctive tumor -?-giant cell seen in Hodgkin's disease; binucleate or bilobed with the 2 halves as mirror images (" -?-owls eyes"); necessary but not sufficient for a -?-diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.

Virchow's (sentinel) node:

a firm supraclavicular lymph node, often on -?-left side; easily palpable; also known as " -?-jugular gland"; presumptive evidence of malignant visceral neoplasm (classically -?-stomach).

Enzyme markers

Serum enzyme Major diagnostic use
Aminotransferases (AST and ALT) -?-Myocardial infarction (AST only), viral hepatitis (ALT > AST), alcoholic hepatitis (AST < ALT)
Amylase -?-Acute pancreatitis, mumps
Ceruloplasmin (↓) -?-Wilsons disease
CPK (creatine phosphokinase) -?-Muscle disorders and MI
GGT (γ-glutamyl transpeptides) -?-Various liver disease
LDH-1 (lactate dehydrogenase fraction I) -?-MI (LDH-1 > LDH-2)
Lipase -?-Acute pancreatitis
Alkaline phosphatase -?-Bone disease, obstsructive live disease

Immunohistochemical stains

Stains Cell Type
Vimentin -?-Connective tissue
Desmin -?-Muscle
Cytokeratin -?-Epithelial cells
Glial fibrillary acid proteins (GFAP) -?-Neuroglia
Neurofilaments -?-Neurons
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