MICROBIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY

MICRO: Virology

Click on the -?- to reveal/hide the answer.

DNA Viruses: Match "viral family" to "medical importance":
-?-(d) Parvovirus B19 virus—aplastic crises in sickle cell disease, "slapped cheeks" rash—erythema infectiosum (5th disease), hydrops fetalis
-?-(b) Herpesviruses HSV-1; HSV-2; VZV; EBV; CMV; HHV-6; HHV-7; HHV-8
-?-(c) Adenovirus Febrile pharyngitis—sore throat; pneumonia; conjunctivitis
-?-(f) Poxvirus Smallpox, although eradicated, could be used in germ warfare vaccinia—cowpox ("milkmaid's blisters"); molluscum contagiosum
-?-(a) Hapadnavirus HBV; acute or chronic hepatitis; vaccine available—use has increased tremendously; not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase
-?-(e) Papovavirus HPV—warts, CIN, cervical cancer; JC—progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: (PML) in HIV
(a) Hapadnavirus (b) Herpesviruses (c) Adenovirus (d) Parvovirus (e) Papovavirus (f) Poxvirus
Match each RNA virus family to its medical importance:
-?-(n) Deltavirus HDV
-?-(a) Picornaviruses Poliovirus—polio-Salk/Sabin vaccines—IPV/OPV; echovirus—aseptic meningitis; rhinovirus—"common cold"; coxsackievirus—aseptic meningitis herpangina—febrile pharyngitis, hand foot mouth disease, myocaritis; HAV—acute viral hepatitis
-?-(b) Caliciviruses HEV; Norwalk virus—viral gastroenteritis
-?-(l) Arenaviruses LCV—lymphocytic choriomeningitis; meningitis—spread by mice
-?-(c) Reoviruses Colorado tick fever; rotavirus—#1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children
-?-(k) Coronaviruses "Common cold"
-?-(i) Rhabdoviruses Rabies
-?-(d) Flaviviruses HCV; yellow fever, dengue, St Louis encephalitis; West Nile virus
-?-(h) Paramyxoviruses Parainfluenza—croup; RSV—bronchiolitis in babies, Rx—riboflavin; measles; mumps
-?-(e) Togaviruses Rubella; Eastern equine encephalitis; Western equine encephalitis
-?-(f) Retroviruses Have reverse transcriptase; HIV—AIDS; HTLV—T-cell leukemia
-?-(g) Orthomyxoviruses Influenza virus
-?-(m) Bunyaviruses California encephalitis; sandfly/Rift Valley fevers; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever;Hantavirus-hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia
-?-(j) Filoviruses Ebola/Marburg hemorrhagic fever—often fatal
(a) Picornaviruses (b) Caliciviruses (c) Reoviruses (d) Flaviviruses (e) Togaviruses (f) Retroviruses (g) Orthomyxoviruses (h) Paramyxoviruses (i) Rhabdoviruses (j) Filoviruses (k) Coronaviruses (l) Arenaviruses (m) Bunyaviruses (n) Deltavirus

Regarding general rules covering all DNA viruses:

What does the acronym HHAPPPy stand for? -?-Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papova

These are characteristics of DNA viruses: -?-double -stranded; l -?-linear; i -?-iscosahedral; replicate in the -?-nucleus.

Generally, enveloped viruses acquire their envelopes from -?-plasma membrane when they exit from cell.
Exceptions are -?-herpesviruses which acquire envelopes from nuclear membrane.

All viruses are haploid except -?-retroviruses, which have 2 identical ssRNA molecules.

Matching:
-?-(a) recombination Exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base sequence homology
-?-(c) complementation When 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a nonfunctional protein
-?-(d) phenotype mixing Genome of virus A can be coated with the surface proteins of virus B
-?-(b) reassortment When viruses with segmented genomes exchange segments
(a) recombination (b) reassortment (c) complementation (d) phenotype mixing
Match structure to virus:
-?-(a) DNA enveloped viruses Herpesviruses, HBV, smallpox virus
-?-(d) RNA nucleocapsid viruses Enteroviruses, rhivovirus, reovirus
-?-(b) DNA nucleocapsid viruses Adenovirus, papillomarivurses, parvovirus
-?-(c) RNA enveloped viruses Influenza virus, RSV, mumps, HIV
(a) DNA enveloped viruses (b) DNA nucleocapsid viruses (c) RNA enveloped viruses (d) RNA nucleocapsid viruses

What are the 3 C's of measles? -?-Cough -?-Coryza -?-Conjunctivitis
Also look for -?-Koplik spots.

Genetic -?-shift is the reassortment of viral genome and genetic -?-drift refers to minor changes based on random mutation.

In the U.S., rabies, which has a long incubation period and causes fatal encephalitis with seizures & hydrophobia, is more commonly caused by -?-bat, -?-raccoon and -?-skunk bites than from dog bites.

Zoonotic bacteria
Virus Diseases Route of transmission
HSV-1 -?-Gingivostomatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, temporal lobe encephalitis, herpes labialis Respiratory secretions, saliva
HSV-2 -?-Herpes genitalis, neonatial herpes Sexual contact, perinated
VZV -?-Varicella-zoster (shingles), encephalitis, pneumonia Respiratory secretions
EBV Infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's -?-Respiratory secretions, saliva
CMV Congenital infection, monomucleosis, pneumonia -?-Congenital, transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant
HHV-8 Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV patients) -?-Sexual contact

-?-Tzanck test is used to assay for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV.

Hepatitis transmission:

-?-(a) HAV primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route; HBV primarily transmitted by -?-(b) parenteral, sexual & maternal-fetal routes; -?-(c) HCV primarily transmitted via blood & resembles HBV in its course & severity; and, -?-(d) HEV transmitted enterically & causes water-bourne epidemics.

Match: hepatitis serologic markers
-?-(e) HBcAb An indicator of recent disease
-?-(b) HBsAg Continued presence indicates carrier state
-?-(a) IgM HAVAb Best test to detect active hepatitis A
-?-(c) HBsAb Provides immunity to hepatitis B
-?-(g) HBeAb Indicates low transmissibility
-?-(d) HBcAg Associated with core of HBV
-?-(f) HBeAg Important indicator of transmissibility
(a) IgM HAVAb (b) HBsAg (c) HBsAb (d) HBcAg (e) HBcAb (f) HBeAg (g) HBeAb

For HIV diagnosis, the presumptive diagnosis is made with -?-ELISA and confirmed with -?-Western blot assay; -?-HIV PCR/viral load tests are increasingly popular and allow physician to monitor the effect of drug therapy on viral load.

Matching: Opportunistic infections in AIDS:
-?-(b) viral HSV, VZV, CMV, PML
-?-(d) protozoan toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis
-?-(a) bacterial tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex
-?-(c) fungal thrush, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, pneumocystis pneumonia
(a) bacterial (b) viral (c) fungal (d) protozoan
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