CELL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/BIOCHEMISTRY

HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM

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Metabolism is precisely regulated by -?- hormones controlling the level of blood fuels and their delivery to tissues.

The primary control hormones of metabolism are insulin and -?- glucagon.

Epinephrine has effects similar to glucagon, except the glucagon has a greater effect on the liver while epinephrine has a greater effect on -?- muscle .

Blood levels of glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and -?- ketone bodies are maintained by variations in [insulin] / [glucagons] ratio.

When blood sugar is high, the ratio increases and insulin signals the fed state, promoting -?- anabolic activities.

The ratio decreases as glucagon is released to direct -?- catabolic activities when blood glucose falls in between meals, during fasting, and during starvation.

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