CELL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/BIOCHEMISTRY
HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM
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Metabolism is precisely regulated by -?- hormones controlling the level of blood fuels and their delivery to tissues.
The primary control hormones of metabolism are insulin and -?- glucagon.
Epinephrine has effects similar to glucagon, except the glucagon has a greater effect on the liver while epinephrine has a greater effect on -?- muscle .
Blood levels of glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and -?- ketone bodies are maintained by variations in [insulin] / [glucagons] ratio.
When blood sugar is high, the ratio increases and insulin signals the fed state, promoting -?- anabolic activities.
The ratio decreases as glucagon is released to direct -?- catabolic activities when blood glucose falls in between meals, during fasting, and during starvation.