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-?-anterograde amnesia is the inability to remember things that occurred after a CNS insult (no new memory); -?-Korsakoff's amnesia, a classic anterograde amnesia caused by thiamine deficiency, is associated with alcoholism & confabulations; -?-retrograde amnesia is inability to remember things that occurred before a CNS insult.
|alcohol||Disinhibition, emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, blackouts||-?-Tremor, tachycardia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, seizures, delirium tremens (DTs), tremulousness, agitation, hallucinations|
|amphetamines||-?-Psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, papillary dilation, hypertension, tachycardia, euphoria, prolonged wakefulness & attention, cardiac arrhythmias, delusions, hallucinations, fever||Post-use crash, including depression, lethargy, headache, stomach cramps, hunger, hypersomnolence|
|-?-PCP||Belligerence, impulsiveness, fever, psychomotor agitation, vertical & horizontal nystagmus, tachycardia, ataxia, homicidality, psychosis, delirium||Recurrence of intoxication symptoms due to reabsorption in GI tract; sudden onset of severe, random, homicidal violence|
|marijuana||Euphoria, anxiety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, increased appetite, dry mouth hallucinations||-?-Does withdrawal occur?|
|-?-Barbituates||Low safety margin, respiratory depression||Anxiety, seizures, delirium, life-threatening cardiovascular collapse|
|Caffeine||Restlessness, insomnia, increased diuresis, muscle twitching, cardiac arrhythmias||-?-Headache, lethargy, depression, weight gain|
Treat DTs with -?-benzodiazepines.
There are an estimated -?-500,000 US heroin addicts.
One key to diagnosing dementia is to rule out -?-delirium (note: in elderly patients, depression may present like dementia).
-?-dysthymia is a milder form of depression lasting at least 2 years.
The major adverse effects of ECT are -?-disorientation and amnesia (anterograde & retrograde).
RE manic episodes, what symptoms does the mnemonic DIG FAST stand for and a minimum of how many symptoms must be present for this diagnosis?
|F:||-?-Flight of ideas|
|A A:||-?-Increase in goal-directed Activity & psychomotor Agitation|
|(note)||-?-a minimum of 3 of the above must be present during mood disturbance|
-?-lithium is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder; -?-cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder lasting at least 2 years.
Panic disorders are periods of intense fear and discomfort peaking in -?-ten (10) minutes with at least 4 of the following present: palpitations, abdominal distress, -?-nausea, increased perspiration, chest pain, chills and choking.
|-?-Cluster B||antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic|
|-?-Cluster C||avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, dependent|
|-?-Cluster A||paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal|
|Cluster A Cluster B Cluster C|
Match the childhood disorder with the appropriate description:
|-?-Tourette's||motor/vocal tics & involuntary profanity|
|-?-Rett's||X-linked disorder seen only in girls|
|-?-Autism||severe communication & relationship problems|
|-?-Separation anxiety||fear of loss of attachment figure w/ factitious physical complaints to avoid school|
|-?-Asperger's||milder form of autism|
|-?-ADHD||limited attention span & poor impulse control|
|-?-Conduct disorder||continued behavior violating social norms|
|-?-ODD||oppositional defiance to authority figures but an absence of criminality|
|Autism Asperger's Rett's ADHD Conduct disorder Separation anxiety Tourette's ODD|
Hallucinations are -?-perceptions in the absence of external stimuli; illusions are -?-misinterpretations of actual external stimuli; delusions are -?-false beliefs not shared by other members of the culture/subculture that are firmly maintained in spite of obvious proof to the contrary.
Visual & auditory hallucinations are common in -?-schizophrenia; olfactory hallucination often occurs as an aura of psychomotor -?-epilepsy;gustatory hallucination is -?-rare; tactile hallucinations is common in -?-DTs and -?-cocaine abuse; -?-hypnagogic hallucination occurs while going to sleep; -?-hypnopompic hallucination occurs while waking from sleep.
Positive symptoms of -?-schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, strange behavior, loose associations.
The 5 subtypes of schizophrenia are: disorganized; -?-catatonic; paranoid; undifferentiated; and, -?-residual.