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-?-anterograde amnesia is the inability to remember things that occurred after a CNS insult (no new memory); -?-Korsakoff's amnesia, a classic anterograde amnesia caused by thiamine deficiency, is associated with alcoholism & confabulations; -?-retrograde amnesia is inability to remember things that occurred before a CNS insult.
Signs & symptoms of substance abuse
Drug Intoxication Withdrawal
alcohol Disinhibition, emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, blackouts -?-Tremor, tachycardia, hypertension, malaise, nausea, seizures, delirium tremens (DTs), tremulousness, agitation, hallucinations
amphetamines -?-Psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, papillary dilation, hypertension, tachycardia, euphoria, prolonged wakefulness & attention, cardiac arrhythmias, delusions, hallucinations, fever Post-use crash, including depression, lethargy, headache, stomach cramps, hunger, hypersomnolence
-?-PCP Belligerence, impulsiveness, fever, psychomotor agitation, vertical & horizontal nystagmus, tachycardia, ataxia, homicidality, psychosis, delirium Recurrence of intoxication symptoms due to reabsorption in GI tract; sudden onset of severe, random, homicidal violence
marijuana Euphoria, anxiety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, increased appetite, dry mouth hallucinations -?-Does withdrawal occur?
-?-Barbituates Low safety margin, respiratory depression Anxiety, seizures, delirium, life-threatening cardiovascular collapse
Caffeine Restlessness, insomnia, increased diuresis, muscle twitching, cardiac arrhythmias -?-Headache, lethargy, depression, weight gain
Treat DTs with -?-benzodiazepines.
There are an estimated -?-500,000 US heroin addicts.
One key to diagnosing dementia is to rule out -?-delirium (note: in elderly patients, depression may present like dementia).
-?-dysthymia is a milder form of depression lasting at least 2 years.
The major adverse effects of ECT are -?-disorientation and amnesia (anterograde & retrograde).
RE manic episodes, what symptoms does the mnemonic DIG FAST stand for and a minimum of how many symptoms must be present for this diagnosis?
D: -?-Distractibility
I: -?-Insomnia
G: -?-Grandiosity
F: -?-Flight of ideas
A A: -?-Increase in goal-directed Activity & psychomotor Agitation
S: -?-Pressured Speech
T: -?-Thoughtlessness
(note) -?-a minimum of 3 of the above must be present during mood disturbance
-?-lithium is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder; -?-cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder lasting at least 2 years.
Panic disorders are periods of intense fear and discomfort peaking in -?-ten (10) minutes with at least 4 of the following present: palpitations, abdominal distress, -?-nausea, increased perspiration, chest pain, chills and choking.
Match the personality cluster disorders with their types:
-?-Cluster B antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
-?-Cluster C avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, dependent
-?-Cluster A paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
Cluster A Cluster B Cluster C
Match the childhood disorder with the appropriate description:
-?-Tourette's motor/vocal tics & involuntary profanity
-?-Rett's X-linked disorder seen only in girls
-?-Autism severe communication & relationship problems
-?-Separation anxiety fear of loss of attachment figure w/ factitious physical complaints to avoid school
-?-Asperger's milder form of autism
-?-ADHD limited attention span & poor impulse control
-?-Conduct disorder continued behavior violating social norms
-?-ODD oppositional defiance to authority figures but an absence of criminality
Autism Asperger's Rett's ADHD Conduct disorder Separation anxiety Tourette's ODD
Hallucinations are -?-perceptions in the absence of external stimuli; illusions are -?-misinterpretations of actual external stimuli; delusions are -?-false beliefs not shared by other members of the culture/subculture that are firmly maintained in spite of obvious proof to the contrary.
Visual & auditory hallucinations are common in -?-schizophrenia; olfactory hallucination often occurs as an aura of psychomotor -?-epilepsy;gustatory hallucination is -?-rare; tactile hallucinations is common in -?-DTs and -?-cocaine abuse; -?-hypnagogic hallucination occurs while going to sleep; -?-hypnopompic hallucination occurs while waking from sleep.
Positive symptoms of -?-schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, strange behavior, loose associations.
The 5 subtypes of schizophrenia are: disorganized; -?-catatonic; paranoid; undifferentiated; and, -?-residual.
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