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|ANXIETY||NE -?-↑||GABA -?-↓||Serotonin -?-↓|
|DEPRESSION||NE -?-↓||Serotonin -?-↓|
|HUNTINGTON'S||GABA -?-↓||ACh -?-↓|
Serotonergic predominance of -?-raphe nucleus is the key to initiating sleep; NE -?-reduces REM sleep; extraocular movements during REM is due to the activity of -?-PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center); benzodiazepines -?-shorten stage 4 sleep; and, imipramine is used to treat -?-enuresis because it decreases stage 4 sleep.
REM sleep makes up approximately -?-25% of total sleep; occurs every -?-90 minutes minutes with duration increasing through the night; decreases with age; and, has -?-ACh as its principal neurotransmitter.
Re sleep apnea, person stops breathing for at least -?-10 seconds seconds repeatedly during sleep and often leaves individuals chronically -?-tired.
Narcolepsy may include hypnagogic or hypnopompic -?-hallucinations; has a strong -?-genetic component; and, is often treated with -?-stimulants.
Patients with depression typically have three major changes in their sleep stages: ↓ slow-wave sleep, ↓ REM latency, and -?-early-morning awakening (an important screening question).
Stress induces production of free fatty acids, -?-17-OH corticosteroids, lipids, cholesterol, catecholamines; it affects -?-water absorption, muscular tonicity, gastrocolic reflex, and -?-mucosal circulation.