Facts About Sexually Transmitted Disease
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the year 2000 the United States had:
- 650, 000 cases of gonorrhea
- 3 million cases of chlamydia
- 70, 000 cases of syphilis
- 1 million cases of herpes
- 5.5 million cases of Human Papilloma Virus
- 120,00 cases of Hepatitis B
- 5 million cases of trichcomoniasis per 100,000 people reported in the United States.
Some facts about STD Maryland/Baltimore:
In 2000, the city of Baltimore had the highest rate of gonorrhea and the third highest rate of Syphilis. It is estimated that 333 million cases of curable STD's occur annually.
As of June 2001, Maryland is one of the top ten states with the highest number of cumulative AIDS cases among its residences.
STDs affect all racial, cultural, economic, and religious groups. People in all communities and sexual networks are at risk for STDs. However, for a variety of behavioral, social, and biological reasons, STDs disproportionately affect women, minorities, and adolescent and young adults.
It has been shown that women have a higher chance of suffering from STD related complications than men and HIV is increasingly affecting women. Approximately 48% or 17.6 million, of the 37.2 million adults living with HIV or AIDS worldwide are women. The physiology and anatomy of the female reproductive tract makes women more biologically susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases. It is often difficult to diagnose women that have STDs and this delay in diagnosis often leads to a delay in the treatment of the STDs, leading to acute cases in women. The presence of STDs in pregnant women can lead to an increase in the health problems or the death of the fetus or newborn. Complications in the pregnancy can range from spontaneous abortions to preterm delivery.
In terms of ethnic and minority populations, African American and Hispanic communities have higher rates of STDs than whites. These high rates of infection could be due to poverty, limited or no access to quality health care, and the level of illicit drug use within impoverished communities. In 2000 the rate of reported AIDS cases among African Americans was 58.1 per 100,000 population, more than 2 times the rate for Hispanics and 8 times the rate for whites.
Adolescent and young adults aged 13 to 24 years old are the highest at risk group when compared to other age groups. One out of every four sexually active teenagers in the United States acquires a sexually transmitted disease each year.
In 2000 chlamydia and gonorrhea were the most prevalent curable STDs in adolescents and young adults. This is because adolescents and young adults are more likely to have multiple sex partners and to have unprotected sex when compared to other age groups. There also has been a decline in the use of condoms in high school students. Sixty-three percent of 9th graders use condoms while only 50% of high school seniors are using them. In 2000, 1,688 young people were infected with HIV, adding to a total of 31,293 total cases in this age group.
Studies have shown that when other STDs are present, HIV transmission is at least a two to five times higher than when STDs are not present. Since it has been shown that there is a correlation between STDs and HIV, it is important to have prevention programs that encompass HIV and all of the STDs mentioned above, making it possible to provide proper treatment for those individuals.