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Mark  E Shirtliff
 

Mark E Shirtliff Ph.D.

Academic Title: Associate Professor
Primary Appointment: University of Maryland School of Dentistry
Secondary Appointments: Microbiology and Immunology
mshirtliff@umaryland.edu
Location: UMB Dental School, 9209 (office); 9414 (lab)
Phone: (410) 706-2263
Fax: (410) 706-0865

Personal History:

Mark E. Shirtliff, Ph.D., is an Associate Professsor in the Department of Microbial Pathogenesis in the Dental School and an Adjunct Associate Professor in the School of Medicine. Dr. Shirtliff began his training at the University of Texas Medical Branch in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology where he received his PhD in 2001 with his thesis titled "Staphylococcus aureus: Roles in Osteomyelitis." He then traveled to the Center for Biofilm Engineering in Montana as a postdoctoral fellow to continue his work on biofilms and biofilm-related diseases. Dr. Shirtliff became an Assistant Research Professor in 2003 in the Department of Microbiology and later that year accepted a position as Assistant Professor at University of Maryland, Baltimore. Since arriving in Maryland, Dr. Shirtliff continues his research and teaching interests in biofilms (Shirtliff Lab) and was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure in 2009.

Research Interests:

A biofilm may be defined as a microbially-derived sessile community characterized by cells that are attached to a substratum, interface, or to each other, are embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, and exhibit an altered phenotype with respect to growth, gene expression, and protein production. This layer prevents infection resolution by antimicrobial agents and host phagocytic cells. Once a biofilm is formed on host tissue or an indwelling medical, a chronic infection ensues and often the only treatment option is debridement or implant removal.

My laboratory is presently using 2D gel electrophoresis, microarray analysis, reporter systems, and knockouts to identify biofilm specific genes and their products in Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We are using these specific products to design vaccines that protect against biofilm infections using several animal models. In addition, we are developing tagged monoclonal antibodies against biofilm specific proteins for a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of endocarditis, prosthetic implant infection, deep abscess, and osteomyelitis.

Another aspect of our research involves understanding the interaction of different microbial species that coexist within complex polymicrobial biofilms. While the fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterial species S. aureus are responsible for the majority of hospital-acquired infections and are often co-isolated in a biofilm mode of growth, these microbes also demonstrate infectious synergism. We are presently exploring the microscopic and molecular interactions between these two microbial species using confocal scanning laser microscopy, microarray, and differential 2D-based proteomic approaches. In addition to this dual species biofilm infection, we are also interested in the many microbial species that interact in biofilms in infectious diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic wounds, polymicrobic musculoskeletal infections, and catheter (urinary and intravenous) catheter infections.


Grant Support:

Current Grants (given in direct costs)

"Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: in vitro and in vivo studies"
National Institutes of Health
R01-AI069568-02.
PI: Mark E. Shirtliff.
$1,250,000 (+ $606,250 Indirects).
June 1, 2007 - May 31, 2012.

"Vaccine development for recurrent musculoskeletal infections"
Department of Defense.
W81XWH-07-1-0210.
PI: ME Shirtliff. $280,000 (+ $70,000 Indirects).
Sept 1, 2008 - Aug 31, 2010.

"Determination of differential gene expression in Streptococcus mutans biofilms through microarray analysis."
National Institutes of Health.
PI: ME Shirtliff.
$200,000 in material costs only - no indirects provided.
June 1, 2006 - present.

"Determination of differential gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms through microarray analysis."
National Institutes of Health.
PI: ME Shirtliff.
$200,000 in material costs only - no indirects provided.
June 1, 2006 - present.

"Determination of differential gene expression in Candida albicans biofilms through microarray analysis."
National Institutes of Health.
PI: ME Shirtliff.
$200,000 in material costs only - no indirects provided.
June 1, 2006 - present.

"Identification of determinants essential for biofilm formation and virulence in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a global genetic approach"
PI: ME Shirtliff and KS McIver.
University of Maryland, College Park.
$70,000.
Sept 1 2008 - Aug 31, 2009.

Submitted

"Diagnosis for biofilm infections"
National Institutes of Health - R01.
PIs: Mark E. Shirtliff and Jeff Leid.
$1,125,000 + $562,500.
Submitted October 6, 2009.

"Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: in vitro and in vivo studies"
National Institutes of Health - R01.
PIs: Mark E. Shirtliff and Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk.
$1,125,000 + $562,500.
Submitted October 6, 2009.

"Rapid and Early Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Orthopaedic Infection by Lateral Flow Immunoassay"
PI: Mark E. Shirtliff.
$400,000.
Department of Defense, Peer Reviewed Orthopaedic Research Program (PRORP)
CDMRP Submitted August 4, 2009.

"Vaccine prevention of post-traumatic chronic orthopaedic war wound infections."
PI: Jason H. Calhoun and Mark E. Shirtliff.
$3,000,000.
Department of Defense, Peer Reviewed Orthopaedic Research Program (PRORP)
CDMRP Submitted December 19, 2009.

"Reduction of carriage and prevention of systemic infections due to Staphylococcus aureus."
PI: Mark E. Shirtliff.
$700,000.
Variations Biotechnologies.
Submitted October 4, 2009.


Publications:

Textbooks and Thematic Issues

  1. Donelli G, Bayston R, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME, Editors. Eurobiofilms. FEMS Immunol. Med. Micro. 2010.
  2. Shirtliff ME and Leid JG, Editors. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections. In: Springer Series on Biofilms. Senior Editor, Costerton JW. Springer, New York, NY. 2009.
  3. Bjarnsholt T, Stoodley P, and Shirtliff ME. Senior Editors, Springer Series on Biofilms. Springer, New York, NY. 2009.

Papers

  1. Schlecht LM, Peters BM, Hänsch GM, Filler SG, Jabra-Rizk MA, and Shirtliff ME. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion in a murine model of oral co-infection. 2013. – submitted to PLoS Pathogens.
  2. Jarrett AM, Cogan NG, and Shirtliff ME. Model of the inflammatory host response to a bacterial infection. 2013 – submitted to PLoS Computational Biology.
  3. Archer N, Harro J, and Shirtliff ME. Utilizing the host immune response to battle biofilms. Antibiofilm agents: from diagnosis to treatment and prevention. Springer. 2013. – in press.
  4. Achermann Y, Kerns PW, Zhou H, and Shirtliff ME.  In vivo infection studies. In: Biomaterials and Medical Device-Associated Infections. Woodhead Publishing. 2013. – in press.
  5. Achermann Y, Goldstein EJC, and Shirtliff ME. Propionibacterium acnes: from commensal to opportunistic biofilm-associated implant pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013. – in press.
  6. Cope E, Cohen N, Dowd SE, Palmer J, Chiu A, Wolcott R, Neeling L, Gmerek A, Smith A, Shirtliff ME, and Leid JG. Primary exposure to cigarette smoke influences microbial community composition in chronic rhinosinusitis determined by next generation pyrosequencing. FEMS Med Micro Immun. 2013. – in press.
  7. Fox-Moon SJ and Shirtliff ME. Urinary tract infections caused by Proteus mirabilis. Molecular Medical Microbiology – 2nd Edition. Academic Press. Ed. Sussman, M. Ch. 73, 1541-1550. 2013.
  8. Sternberg C, Bjarnsholt T, and Shirtliff ME. Methods for dynamic investigations of surface attached in vitro bacterial and fungal biofilms. In: Microbial Biofilms – Methods and Protocols. Editor: Gianfranco Donelli. Humana Press. 2013. – in press.
  9. Chena Q, Dintamana J, Leesb A, Sena G, Schwartz D, Shirtliff ME, Lee JC, Mondf JJ, and Snapper CM. A novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based anti-staphylococcal conjugate vaccine. Infect Immun. Epub May 6, 2013.
  10. Archer NK, Harro JM, and Shirtliff ME. Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is T-cell dependent and mediated through IL-17A expression and neutrophil influx. Infect Immun. 81(6):2070-5, 2013.
  11. Brady RA, Mocca CP, Prabhakara R, Plaut R, Shirtliff ME, Merkel T, Burns DL. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple models of Staphylococcus aureus infection. PLoS One. 8(4):e63040, 2013.
  12. von Rosenvinge EC, O’May GA, Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT, and Shirtliff ME. Microbial biofilms and gastrointestinal diseases. Pathogens Dis. 67(1):25-38. 2013.
  13. Harro JM, Daugherty S, Bruno VM, Jabra-Rizk MA, Rasko DA, and Shirtliff ME. The draft genome sequence of the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate MRSA-M2. Genome Announce. Jan;1(1). doi:pii: e00037-12. 2013.
  14. Stoodley P, Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton B, DeMeo P, Shirtliff M, Gawalt E, and Kathju S. Biofilms, biomaterials, and device-related infections. In BD Ratner, AS Hoffman and FJ Schoen (Eds.), Biomaterials Science. pp.565–583. 2013.
  15. Archer NK, Leid JG, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME. Immunological methods for Staphylococcus aureus infection diagnosis and prevention. In Culture Negative Orthopedic Infections. Ed. DeMeo PJ, Costerton JW, Ehrlich GD, and Winkler H. Springer Series on Biofilms. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 61-76, 2012.
  16. Peters BM, Ovchinnikova E., Jabra-Rizk MA, Hoyer L, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Krom BP, and Shirtliff ME. Candida albicans hyphal adhesin Als3p mediates interspecies interactions with Staphylococcus aureus during polymicrobial biofilm growth. Microbiology. 158(Pt 12):2975-86. 2012.
  17. Shirtliff ME, Post JC, Ehrlich GD. Bill Costerton: leader as servant. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 66(3):269-72. 2012.
  18. Ekaterina I. Galanzha EI, Shashkov E, Sarimollaoglu M, Beenken KE, Basnakian A, Kim JW, Shirtliff ME, Smeltzer MS, Zharov VP. In vivo photoacoustic diagnosis and photothermal purging of infected blood using multifunctional nanoparticles. PLoS One. 7(9):e45557. 2012.
  19. Xu Z, Lin L, Chu J, Peters BP, Harris ML, Li B, Shi L, and Shirtliff ME. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays on rapid detection of various types of staphylococcal strains. Food Res Int. 47(2):166-173. 2012.
  20. McLean JS, Fansler SJ, Majors PD, McAteer K, Allen LZ, Shirtliff ME, Lux R, and Shi W. Identifying low pH active and lactate-utilizing taxa within oral microbiome communities from healthy children using stable isotope probing techniques. PLoS One. 7(3):e32219. 2012.
  21. Peters BM, O’May GA, Jabra-Rizk MA, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME. Polymicrobial interactions in biofilms: impact on pathogenesis and human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 25(1):193-213. 2012.
  22. Xu Z, Li L, Zhao X, Chu J, Lim B, Shi L, Su J and Shirtliff ME. Development and application of a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid detection of various types of staphylococci strains. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5(14):1869-1873. 2011.
  23. Zhu J, Krom B, Sanglard D, Intapa C, Dawson CC, Peters BM, Shirtliff ME, and Jabra-Rizk MA. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans is mediated by Cdr1-p extrusion and depletion of intracellular glutathione. PLoS One. 6(12):e28830. 2011.
  24. Cope E, Goldstein-Daruech N, Kofonow J, Christensen L, Gilliland M, McDermott B, Monroy F, Nunamaker J, Palmer J, Chiu A, Shirtliff ME, Cohen N, and Leid JG. Characterization of virulence gene expression resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae polymicrobial interactions in a chronic disease. PLoS One. 6(12):e28523. 2011.
  25. Han A, Zenilman JM, Melendez JH, Shirtliff ME, Agostinho A, James G, Stewart PS, Mongodin EF, Rao D, Rickard AH, Lazarus GS. The importance of a multifaceted approach to characterizing the microbial flora of chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 19(5):532-41. 2011.
  26. Leid JG, Cope EK, Parmenter S, Shirtliff ME, Dowd S, Wolcott R, Basaraba R, Hunsaker H, Palmer J, and Cohen N. The importance of biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis. Biofilm Infections. Springer Inc. New York, New York. 139-160. 2011.
  27. O’May GA, Brady RA, Leid JG, Calhoun JH, and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis. Biofilm Infections. Springer Inc. New York, New York. 111-138. 2011.
  28. Prabhakara R, Harro J, Harris M, Leid JG, and Shirtliff ME. Suppression of the inflammatory immune response prevents the development of chronic biofilm infection due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 79(12):5010-8. 2011.
  29. Prabhakara R, Harro JM, Leid JG, Harris ML, and Shirtliff ME. Murine immune response to a chronic Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infection. Infect Immun. 79(4):1789-1796, 2011.
  30. Brady RA, O’May G, Leid JG, and Shirtliff ME. Resolution of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infection using vaccination and antibiotic treatment. Infect Immun. 79(4):1797-1803, 2011.
  31. Xu Z, Lin Li L, Shirtliff ME, Peters BM, Li B, Peng Y, Alam MJ, Yamasaki S, Shi L. Resistance Class 1 Integron in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Southern China, 2001-2006. Clin Microbiol Infect. 17(5):714-8, 2011.
  32. Xu Z, Li L, Shi L, and Shirtliff ME. Class 1 integron in staphylococci. Mol Biol Rep. Nov;38(8):5261-79. 2011.
  33. Jacobsen SM, Shirtliff ME. Proteus mirabilis biofilms and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Virulence. Sep-Oct;2(5):460-5. 2011.
  34. Archer NK, Mazaitis MJ, Costerton JW, Leid JG, Powers ME, Shirtliff ME. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: Properties, regulation, and roles in human disease. Virulence. 2(5):445-59. 2011.
  35. Peters BM, Shirtliff ME, Jabra-Rizk MA. Antimicrobial peptides: primeval molecules or future drugs? PLoS Pathog. 2010. 28;6(10):e1001067.
  36. Zhao X, Wang L, Chu J, Li Y, Li Y, Xu Z, Li L, Shirtliff ME, He X, Liu Y, Wang J, and Yang L. Rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains and virulent factors by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2010. 19(5):1191-1197.
  37. Xu Z, Li L, Shirtliff ME, Peters BM, Peng Y, Alam MJ, Yamasaki S, Shi L. First report of class 2 integron in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and class 1 integron in Enterococcus faecium in South China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010. 68(3):315-7.
  38. Miclau T, Schmidt AH, Wenke JC, Webb LX, Harro JM, Prabhakara R, Shirtliff ME. Infection. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Sep;24(9):583-6.
  39. Peters BM, Jabra-Rizk MA, Scheper MA, Leid JG, Costerton JW, Shirtliff ME. Microbial interactions and differential protein expression in Staphylococcus aureus -Candida albicans dual-species biofilms. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010. 59(3):493-503.
  40. Harro JM, Peters BM, O'May GA, Archer N, Kerns P, Prabhakara R, Shirtliff ME. Vaccine development in Staphylococcus aureus: taking the biofilm phenotype into consideration. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010. 59(3):306-23.
  41. Donelli G, Bayston R, Costerton WB, Shirtliff ME. The first European congress on microbial biofilms: EUROBIOFILMS 2009, Rome, Italy, September 2-5, 2009. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010. 59(3):223-6.
  42. Calhoun JH, Manning M, and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis of the long bones. Sem. Plastic Surg. 23(2):59-72. 2009.
  43. Shirtliff ME, Peters B, Jabra-Rizk MA. Cross-kingdom interactions: Candida albicans and Bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 299(1): 1-8, 2009.
  44. Unnanuntana A, Bonsignore L, Shirtliff ME, and Greenfield EM. The effects of farnesol on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and osteoblasts. An in vitro study. J Bone Joint Surg Am.;(91):2683-92, 2009.
  45. Leid JG, Kerr M, Selgado C, Johnson C, Moreno G, Shirtliff ME, O’Toole GA, and Cope EK. Flagellar-mediated biofilm defense mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against host derived lactoferrin. J. Immunology. 77(10):4559-66, 2009.
  46. Shirtliff ME, Krom BP, Peters B, Zhu J, and Jabra-Rizk MA. Farnesol-induced modifications in Candida albicans proteome. Antimicrob  Agents Chemother. 53(6):2392-401, 2009.
  47. O’May G, Jacobsen SM, Mobley H, and Shirtliff ME. The high-affinity phosphate transporter Pst in Proteus mirabilis HI4320 and its importance in biofilm formation. Microbiology. 155(5):1547-1557, 2009.
  48. Meiller TF, Hube B, Schild L, Shirtliff ME, Scheper MA, Ton A, and Jabra-Rizk MA. A novel immune evasion strategy of Candida albicans: proteolytic cleavage of a salivary antimicrobial peptide. PLoS ONE. 4(4):e5039, 1-9, 2009.
  49. Xu Z, Li L, Shirtliff ME, Alam MJ, Yamasaki S, Shi L. Occurrence and characteristics of class 1 and 2 integrons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients in southern China. J Clin Microbiol. 47(1):230-4, 2009.
  50. Brady RA, Calhoun JH, Leid JG, and Shirtliff ME. Infections of orthopaedic implants and devices. In: Biofilms and Device-Related Infections. Springer, New York, NY. ed. Shirtliff ME and Leid JG. 15-56, 2009.
  51. O’May G, Jacobsen SM, Mobley H, and Shirtliff ME. Catheter-related urinary tract infections. In: Biofilms and Device-Related Infections. Springer, New York, NY. ed. Shirtliff ME and Leid JG. 123-166, 2009.
  52. Scheper MA, Shirtliff ME, Meiller TF, Peters B, and Jabra-Rizk MA. Farnesol a fungal quorum sensing molecule triggers apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Neoplasia. 10(9):954-63, 2008.
  53. Fux CA, Stoodley P, Shirtliff ME, and Costerton JW. Functional Resistance of Biofilms. In: Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: Principles and Practice for the Clinic and Bench. ed Mayers DL. Infectious Disease Series. ed Georgiev VS. Humana Press. March, 2008. 121-131.
  54. Jacobsen SM, Lane MC, Harro JM, Shirtliff ME*, and Mobley HLT*. *Both authors contributed equally. The high-affinity phosphate transporter Pst is a virulence factor for Proteus mirabilis during complicated urinary tract infection. FEMS Immun Med Micro. 52(2):180-93, 2008.
  55. M. Nymer M, Cope E, Brady R, Shirtliff ME, and Leid JG. Immune responses to indwelling medical devices. In: Biofilms and Device-Related Infections. Springer, New York, NY. ed. Shirtliff ME and Leid JG. 239-264, 2009.
  56. Jacobsen SM, Stickler D, Mobley HLT, and Shirtliff ME. The role of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in catheter-related urinary tract infections. Clin Micro Rev. 21(1):26-59, 2008.
  57. Brady R, Leid JG, Calhoun JH, and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis and the role of biofilms in chronic infection. FEMS Immun Med Micro. 52:13-22, 2008.
  58. Calhoun JH, Sexton DJ, and Shirtliff ME. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in adults. In: Infectious Diseases. Up To Date Publishing Corporation. Wellesley, MA. 2007.
  59. Brady RA, Leid JG, Kofonow J, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME. Immunoglobulins to surface-associated biofilm immunogens provide a novel means of visualization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Appl Env Micro. 73(20): 6612-9, 2007.
  60. Calhoun J, Christensen G, Brady RA, Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis. In: Expert Guide to Infectious Diseases. ed. Tan JS. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA. 2007.
  61. Lazzarini L, Overgaard KA, Conti E, and Shirtliff ME. Experimental osteomyelitis: what have we learned from animal studies about the systemic treatment of osteomyelitis? J Chemother. 18(5): 451-460, 2006.
  62. Jabra-Rizk MA, Shirtliff M, James C, and Meiller T. Farnesol effect on Candida albicans and Candida dubliensis. FEMS Yeast Research. 6(7):1063-73, 2006.
  63. Shirtliff ME, Singh Bal B, Yin L, and Calhoun JH. Staging systems for long bone osteomyelitis. In: Infectious Diseases. Up To Date Publishing Corporation. Wellesley, MA. 2006.
  64. Brady RA, Leid JG, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus proteins recognized by the antibody mediated immune response to a biofilm infection. Infect Immun. 74(6): 3415-3426, 2006.
  65. Jabra-Rizk MA, Meiller T, James CE, and Shirtliff ME. Effect of farnesol on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50(4):1463-9 2006.
  66. Brady RA, Leid JG, Costerton JW, and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis. Clin Micro News. 28(9): 65-72, 2006.
  67. Leid JG, Carey JW, Shirtliff ME, Hassett DJ, Parsek MR, and Jeffers AK. The exopolysaccharide alginate protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm bacteria from IFN-•-mediated macrophage killing. J Imm. 175(11):7512-8, 2005.
  68. Shirtliff ME, Bargmeyer A, and Camper AK. Assessment of the bioelectric effect to eliminate mixed water species biofilms. Appl Environ Micro.71(10):6379-82, 2005.
  69. Fux CA, Shirtliff ME, Stoodley P, and Costerton JW. Can laboratory strains mirror “real world” pathogenesis? Trends Micro. 13(2):2005.
  70. Shirtliff ME, Cripps MW, and Calhoun JH. Staging systems for long bone osteomyelitis. In: Infectious Diseases. Up To Date Publishing Corporation. Wellesley, MA. 2005.
  71. Bargmeyer A, Shirtliff M, Butterfield P, Camper A, Friedman M, and Boyd G. Innovative Biofilm Prevention Strategies. AWWARF Report 91011F. IWA Publishing. June, 2005.
  72. Costerton JW, Stoodley P, Shirtliff ME, Pasmore M, Cook G. Biofilms, biomaterials, and device-related infections. In: Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine. ed. Ratner BD, Hoffman AS, Schoen FJ, and Lemons JE., Elsevier Academic Press. 345-354, 2004.
  73. Costerton JW, Veeh R, Shirtliff ME, Pasmore M, Post C, and Ehrlich G. The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections. J Clin Invest. 112(10):1466-1477, 2003.
  74. Worley SD, Li F, Wu R, Wei C-I, Williams JF, Owens J, Wander JD, Bargmeyer AM, and Shirtliff ME. A novel N-halamine monomer for preparing biocidal polyurethane coatings. Surface Coatings Int. Part B: Coat. Trans. 86(B4):273-277, 2003.
  75. Shirtliff ME and Mader JT. Imaging in osteomyelitis. Curr Treat Options Infect Dis 5(4):323-335, 2003.
  76. Veeh RH, Shirtliff ME, Petik JR, Flood JA, Davis CC, Seymour JL, Hannsmen MA, Kerr KM, Costerton JW, and Pasmore, M. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on tampons and menses. J Infect Dis. 188(4):519-530, 2003.
  77. Shirtliff ME, Mader JT, and Camper AK. Molecular interactions in biofilms. Chem and Biol. 9(8):859-865, 2002.
  78. Shirtliff ME and Mader JT. Acute septic arthritis. Clin Micro Rev. 15(4):527-544, 2002.
  79. Shirtliff ME, Leid J, and Costerton JW. Basic science of musculoskeletal infections. In: Musculoskeletal Infections. ed. Mader JT and Calhoun JH. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY. 1-61, 2002.
  80. Leid JG, Shirtliff ME, Costerton JW, and Stoodley P. Human leukocytes adhere to, penetrate, and respond to Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Infect Immun. 70(11):6339-6345, 2002.
  81. Shirtliff ME and Lefrock J. Septic Arthritis. In: Musculoskeletal Infections. ed. Mader JT and Calhoun JH. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY. 183-209, 2002.
  82. Shirtliff ME, Calhoun JH, and Mader JT. Experimental osteomyelitis treatment with antibiotic-impregnated hydroxyapatite. Clin Orth Related Res. 401:239-247, 2002.
  83. Leid JG, Costerton JW, Shirtliff ME, Gilmore MS, and Engelbert M. Immunology of staphylococcal biofilm infections in the eye:  New tools to study endophthalmitis. J DNA Cell Biol. 21(5):405-413, 2002.
  84. Mader JT and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis. In: Conn's Current Therapy, 2002 Edition. ed. Rakel RE and Bope ET. WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA. 1010-1016, 2002.
  85. Mader JT, Wang J, Shirtliff ME, and Calhoun J. Osteomyelitis. Expert Guide to Infectious Diseases. ed. Tan JS. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA. 585-604, 2002.
  86. Shirtliff ME, Calhoun JH, and Mader JT. Evaluation of gatifloxacin in the treatment of methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in a rabbit model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46(1):231-233, 2002.
  87. Chen JJ, Huang JC, Shirtliff M, Briscoe E, Ali S, Cesani F, Paar D, Cloyd MW. CD4 lymphocytes in the blood of HIV(+) individuals migrate rapidly to lymph nodes and bone marrow: support for homing theory of CD4 cell depletion. J Leukoc Biol. 72(2):271-8, 2002.
  88. Shirtliff ME, Calhoun JH, and Mader JT. The treatment of experimental methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in rabbits with levofloxacin and nafcillin. J Antimicrobial Chemother. 48(2):253-258, 2001.
  89. Mader JT, Trevino SG, Galbraith JW, and Shirtliff ME. Osteomyelitis. In: Internal Medicine Pearls, 2nd Edition. ed. Heffner JE and Sahn SA. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Philadelphia, PA. 191-195, 2001.
  90. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, Bergquist S, and Calhoun JH. Bone and joint infections in the elderly. Practical treatment guidelines. Drugs & Aging. 10(1):1170-1185, 2000.
  91. Balaban N, Collins LV, Cullor JS, Hume EB, Medina-Acosta E, Vieira da Motta O, O'Callaghan R, Rossitto PV, Shirtliff ME, Serafim da Silveira L, Tarkowski A, and Torres JV. Prevention of diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus using the peptide RIP. Peptides. 21(9):1301-1311, 2000.
  92. Shirtliff ME and Mader JT. Osteomyelitis: Clinical Features and Molecular Aspects of Persistence. In: Persistent Bacterial Infections. ed. Nataro JP, Blaser MJ, and Cunningham-Rundles S. ASM Press, Washington DC. 375-395, 2000.
  93. Mader JT and Shirtliff ME. The Rabbit Model of Bacterial Osteomyelitis of the Tibia. In: Handbook of Animal Models of Infection. ed. Zak O and Sande MA. Academic Press Ltd. London, England. 581–591, 1999.
  94. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, and Calhoun JH. Practical guidelines in the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis. In: Infectious Diseases. Up To Date Publishing Corporation. Wellesley, MA. 1999.
  95. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, Bergquist S, and Calhoun JH. Antimicrobial treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Clin Orth Related Res. 360:47-65, 1999.
  96. Shirtliff ME, Calhoun JH, and Mader JT. Rifampin plus azithromycin or clarithromycin to treat osteomyelitis in rabbits. Clin Orth Related Res. 359:229-236, 1999.
  97. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, Bergquist S, and Calhoun JH. Principles of management and treatment of osteomyelitis. In: Infectious Diseases. Up To Date Publishing Corporation. Wellesley, MA. 1999.
  98. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, and Calhoun JH. The host and the skeletal infection: Classification and pathogenesis of acute bacterial bone and joint sepsis. In: Baillière's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. ed. Woolf AD. 13(1):1-20, 1999.
  99. Mader JT, Shirtliff ME, and Calhoun JH. The use of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of osteomyelitis. In: Hyperbaric Medicine Practice. Best Publishing Co. Flagstaff, Arizona. 603-616, 1999.
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