Bookmark and Share

Carol L. Greene
View Curriculum Vitae 

Carol L. Greene M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Pediatrics
Secondary Appointments: Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Pathology
Location: 737 W. Lombard St., 199
Phone: (410) 328-3335
Fax: (410) 328-5484

Personal History:


1971-1974: B.S. (biology), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
1974-1977: M.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.

Post Graduate Training

1977-1980: Pediatric Internship and Residency, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
1980-1983: Fellow in Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California

After training in Genetics, Dr. Greene joined the faculty of Tulane University in New Orleans where she served as a clinical Geneticist from 1984-1987. In 1987 she moved to Colorado and from 1987 to 2000 she directed the Inherited Metabolic Diseases Clinic at The University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and the Children's Hospital in Denver. While in Colorado she was for seven years chair of the Colorado Newborn Screening Advisory Committee.

In 1999 Dr. Greene was the American Society of Human Genetics Fellow through the AAAS, and as a Congressional Fellow worked for the public health sub-committee of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee.

From 2000 to 2004 Dr. Greene divided her time between 1) policy work for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and 2) clinical work at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C.

Since August 2004 Dr. Greene has been at the University of Maryland where she is a Professor of Pediatrics and of Ob/GYN. She directs the Genetics Clinic in the Division of Genetics in the Department of Pediatrics and co-directs the Adult Genetics Clinic, and she is Medical Director for the Masters in Genetic Counseling Training Program. She works with the CDC on quality of testing for genetic conditions. She is active in various professional societies and is the Past-President of the Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders.

Research Interests:

Dr. Green's research interests include policy in genetics, inborn errors of metabolism and newborn screening.

Clinical Specialty:

Dr. Green specializes in genetics (pediatrics and adult) and inborn errors of metabolism.


Online Course

Chen, B, Greene CL, Keuhl D, Zenbauer B and Keller P: Good Laboratory Practices For Molecular Genetic Testing. An online interactive multimedia CME and PACE training course for the National Laboratory Training Network in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, published Sept 1, 2012 by the Association for Public Health Laboratories.

Book Chapters

  1. Greene CL, Thomas J and Goodman SI: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism". In: Current Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th and 17th Editions, Ed. Hay et al, 1014-1038, Appleton and Lange Publishers, 2005.
  2. Yannicelli S and Greene CL: "Nutrition Therapies for Inborn Errors of Metabolism". In: Neonatal Nutrition and Metabolism, 507-542, Mosby Year Book Medical Publisher, 1991.
  3. Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the Neonate". In: Pediatric Decision Making 2nd, 3rd and 4th Editions, Ed. S. Berman, 504-505, Mosby, 2003.
  4. Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism". In: Pediatric Decision Making, 3rd and 4th Editions, Ed. S Berman, 506-509, Mosby, 2003.
  5. Thomas J, Greene CL and Cohn R: "Lysosomal Storage, Peroxisomal and Glycosylation Disorders and Smith Lemli Opitz Presenting in the Neonate". In: Avery's Diseases of the Newborn, WB Saunders Co, Eds. Taeusch, Ballard and Gleason, 7th and 8th Editions, 258-288, 2004.
  6. Greene CL and Yudkoff M: "Disorders of Lysosomal Storage". In: Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice, ed. L. Finberg, 1st and 2nd edition (2nd edition with M Yudkoff), 245-253, WB Saunders, 2002
  7. Thomas J and Greene CL: "Newborn Screening". In: Pediatric Decision Making, 4th Edition, Ed. S Berman, 510-515, Mosby, 2003.
  8. Greene C: "Evaluating for Genetic Disease". In: Pediatric Decision Making, 4th Edition, Ed. S Berman, 486-489, Mosby, 2003.
  9. Tsai A and Greene C: "Birth Defects and Dysmorphic Features". In: Pediatric Decision Making, 4th Edition, Ed. S Berman, 490-497, Mosby, 2003.
  10. Thomas J, Greene CL and Berry G: Lysosomal Storage, Peroxisomal and Glycosylation Disorders and Smith-Lemili-Opitz in the Neonate." In Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn, WB Saunders Co, Eds. Gleason and Devanskar, 9th Edition, pp. 239-257, 2011 (Copyright 2012)
  11. Gallagher RC and Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the Neonate". In Berman’s Pediatric Decision Making, 5th Edition, Editors Bajaj, Hambidge, Kerby, Nyquist pp 684-687, Mosby, 2011
  12. Gallagher RC and Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the Acutely Ill Child." In Berman’s Pediatric Decision Making, 5th Edition, Editors Bajaj, Hambidge, Kerby, Nyquist pp 688-692, Mosby, 2011
  13. Gallagher RC and Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism." In A Practical Guide to Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Editors Amieva-Wang, Shandro, Sohoni and Fassl, pp 795-802, Cambridge University Press, 2011
  14. Greene CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism." In: Medical Genetics and Pediatric Practice: A Handbook. Publication of the AAP, May, 2013
  15. Matern D and Greene CL: "Newborn Screening." In the Physician’s guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-up of Metabolic Diseases. Editors Blau, Duran, Gibson, Dionisi-Vici and Blaskovics, Springer Press, 2014
  16. Kaplan J and Greene CL: "Genetic Syndromes." In The Pediatric Upper Extremity. Editors Abzug, Kozin and Zlotolow. Springer Press, 2014 17.
  17. IN PRESS: Greene, CL: "Inborn Errors of Metabolism After the Neonatal Period." In the American Academy of Pediatrics Textbook (on-line) of Pediatric Care

Peer Reviewed Publications

  1. Gibson KM, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL, Page TM, Greene CL and Cann HM: 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria: A new assay of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase using high performance liquid chromatography. Clin Chim Acta 126:171-181, 1982.
  2. Greene CL, Cann HM, Robinson BH, Gibson DM, Sweetman L, Holm J and Nyhan WL: 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaric aciduria. J Neurogenet 1:165-173, 1984.
  3. Greene CL, Pitts W, Rosenfeld R and Luzzatti L: Sex reversal in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Pathologic and endocrine evaluation. Clin Gent 25:366-372, 1984.
  4. Greene CL, Wilson A and Shapira E: Prune belly syndrome and heart defect in one of monozygotic twins following exposure to Tigan and Bendectin. Acta Genet Med Genello (Roma) 34:1010-104, 1985.
  5. Gregory P, Greene CL, Shapira E and Wang N: Alterations in the time of X chromosome replication induced by 5-azacytidine in a patient with 48 XXXY/47 XXY. Cytogenet Cell Genet 39:234-236, 1985.
  6. Amendt B, Greene CL, Sweetman L, Cloherty J, Shih V, Moon A, Teel L and Rhead W: Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: Clinical and biochemical studies in two patients. J Clin Invest 79:1303-1309, 1987.
  7. Greene CL, Blitzer MG and Shapira E: Inborn errors of metabolism and Reye syndrome: Differential diagnosis. J Pediatric 113(1):156-159, 1988.
  8. Gibson KM, Brea J, Kaiser K, Nyhan WL, McCoy EE, Ferreira P, Greene CL, Blitzer MG, Shapira E, Reverte F, Conde C, Bagnell P and Cole DEC: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylgulatryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency: Report of five new patients. J Inher Metab Dis 11:76-87, 1988.
  9. Luder AL, Davidson AD, Goodman SI and Greene CL: Transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia in neonates. J Pediatric 114:(6):1013-1015, 1989.
  10. Luder AL, Yannicelli S, Greene CL: Normal growth and development with unrestricted protein intake after severe infantile propionic acidemias. J Inher Metab Dis 12:307-311, 1989.
  11. Luder AL and Greene CL: Maternal phenylketonurea and hyperphenylalaninemia: Implications for medical practice in the United States. Am J of Ob Gyn 161(5):1102-1105, 1989.
  12. Nord A, vanDoorninck WJ and Greene CL: Developmental Profile of Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease. J Inher Metab Dis, 14, 881-889, 1991.
  13. Davidson-Mundt A, Luder AS, Greene CL: Hyperuricemia in Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency. J Peds, 120:444-6, 1992.
  14. Mazzocco MMM, Yannicelli SY, Nord AN, Davidson-Mundt AJ, Greene CL, Pennington BB: Cognition and Tyrosine Supplementation Among School Age Children with Phenylketonuria. Am J Dis Child, 146:1261-1264, 1992.
  15. Friedman JM, Birch P, Greene CL, NNFF International Database Participants. National Neurofibromatosis Foundation International Database. Am J Med Gen, 45:88-91, 1993.
  16. Acosta PB, Greene CL, Yannicelli S, Korson M, Rohr F, Hooper L, Williams J and Mofidi S. Nutrition Studies in Treated Infants with Phenylketonuria Int Peds, 8:63-73, 1993.
  17. Mazzocco MMM, Nord A, Kovar C, Greene CL, vanDoorninck WJ, Pennington B. Cognitive Development Among Children with Early Treated Phenylketonuria. Devel Neuropsych, 10:133-151, 1994.
  18. McDowell G, Blitzer MJ and Greene CL. Variable Expression in Siblings with Hurler Syndrome and San Filipo A Syndrome: Implications for Evaluation of Treatment. Am J Med Gen 47:1092-1095, 1993.
  19. Citron BA, Kaufman S, Milstein S, Naylor EW, Greene CL and Davis MD. Mutation in the Carbinolamine Dehydratase Gene Leads to Mild Hyperphenylalaninemia with Deficient Co-factor Metabolism. Am J Hum Gen 53:768-774, 1993.
  20. Arnold GL, Greene CL and Goodman SI. Molybdenum Co-factor Deficiency. J Peds 123:595-598, 1993.
  21. Alderman BW, Bradley CM, Greene CL, Fernbach S, Baron AE. Increased Risk of Craniosynostosis with Maternal Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy. Teratology 50:13-18, 1994.
  22. Bradley CM, Alderman BW, Williams MA, Chectsoway H, Fernbach SK, Greene CL, Bigelow PL and Reif JS. Parental Occupations as Risk Factors for Craniosynostosis in Offspring. Epidemiology :306-310, 1995.
  23. Alderman BW, Zamudo S, Baron AE, Joshua SC, Fernbach SK, Greene CL, Mangione EJ. Increased Risk of Craniosynostosis with Higher Antenatal Maternal Attitude. Inter Journal of Epidemiology. 24(2):420-426, 1995.
  24. Alderman BW, Fernbach SK, Greene CL, Mangione EJ, Steslien AI, Ferguson WF. Diagnostic Practice and the Prevalence of Craniosynostosis in Colorado. Arch Ped and Adol Med. 151(2):159-164, 1997.
  25. Irons M, Elias ER, Abuelo D, Bull MJ, Greene CL, Johnson VP, Keppen L, Schananen C, Tint GS, Salen G. Treatment of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrom: results of a multicenter trial. Am J Med Gen 68(3): 311-4, 1997.
  26. Gardner JS, Guyard Boileau B, Alderman BW, Fernbach SK, Greene CL and Mangione EJ. Maternal exposure to prescription and non-prescription pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse and risk of craniosynostosis. Int J of Epidemiology 27(1): 64-7, 1998.
  27. Chamberlin ME, Ubagai T, Mudd SH, Thomas J, Pao VY, Nguyen TK, Levy HL, Greene C, Freehauf C, and Chou JY. Methionine Adenosyltransferase I/III Deficiency: Novel Mutations and Clincal Variations. Am J Hum Gen. 66(2): 347-55, 2000.
  28. Thomas JA, Bernstein LE, Greene CL and Koeller DM. Apparent decreased caloric requirements in children with organic acidemias: preliminary observations. J Amer Dietetic Assoc. 100(9): 10074-6, 2000.
  29. Wolf B, Freehauf CL, Thomas JA, Gordon PL, Greene CL and Ward JC. Markedly elevated serum biotinidase activity helps diagnose Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia. J Inher Metab Dis 26: 805-809, 2003.
  30. Chen B and total of 36 authors including Greene CL as a middle author. Developing a Sustainable Process to Provide Quality Control Material for Genetic Testing. Genetics In Medicine 7(8): 534-549, 2005.
  31. Grosse SD, Khoury MJ, Greene CL, Crider, KS and Politt, RJ. The Epidemiology of Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCADD): An Update. Genetics in Medicine, 8(4):205-212, April 2006.
  32. Nino M, Matos-Miranda C, Maeda M, Chen L, Allanson J, Armour C, Greene C, Kamaluddeen M, Rita D, Medne L, Zackai E, Mansour S, Superti-Furga A, Lewanda A, Bober M, Rosenbaum K, and Braverman N. Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Arylsulfatase E in Patients with Brachytelephalangic Chondrodysplasia Punctata. American Journal of Medical Gentics Part A, 146A (8): 997-1008, April 15, 2008.
  33. Kemper AR, Boyle CA, Aceves J, Dougherty D, Figge J, Hinman AR, Greene CL, Kus C, Miller J, Therrell B, Lloyd-Puryear M, van Dyck PC, Howell RR. Long-Term Follow-Up After Diagnosis Resulting From Newborn Screening: Statement of the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders and Genetic Diseases in Newborns and Children. Genetics in Medicine 10(4): 259-261, April 2008.
  34. Barshop, BA and Greene, CL. Laboratory Referral Practices in Biochemical Genetics in the United States. Molecular Genetics and Medicine [IEM Digest] 98(1-2): 149-151, 2009
  35. Chen B and Greene C. Promoting Quality of Genetic Testing with Guidelines for Good Laboratory Practice. Molecular Genetics and Medicine [IEM Digest] 99(3); 238-243, 2010
  36. J Meekins, M Butler, M Skinner, R Shippy, C Greene and Y Ning: Microarray detection of an unbalanced t(4;13) translocation narrows down the trisomy 13 associated polydactyly to a 7 Mb region. Am J Med Genet 152A(11): 2906-7, Nov 2010
  37. The Impact of False Positive Newborn Screening Results on Families: A Qualitative Study. JL Schmidt, K Castellanos-Brown, S Childress, N Bonhomme, J Oktay, SF Terry, P Kyler, A Davidoff and C Greene, Genetics In Medicine 14(1): 76-80, Jan 2012.
  38. SA Berry, MK Kenney, KB Harris, RH Sing, CA C Cameron, JN Karszewski, J Levy-Fisch, JF Shuger, CL Greene, MA Lloyd-Puryear, CA Boyle: Insurance coverage of medical foods for treatment of inherited metabolic disorders. Genetics in Medicine (2013) Online publication April 18, 2013 doi:10.1038/gim.2013.45
  39. Susan A. Berry, Christine Brown, Mitzie Grant, Carol L. Greene, Elaina Jurecki, Jean Koch, Kathryn Moseley, Ruth Suter, Sandra C. van Calcar, Judy Wiles and Stephen Cederbaum. Newborn Screening 50 Years Later: Access Issues Faced by Adults with PKU. Genetics in Medicine August 2013:15(88):591-599
  40. Sumit Parikh, Amy Goldstein, Mary Kay Koenig, Fernando Scaglia, Gregory M Enns and Russell Saneto for the Mitochondrial Medicine Society Clinical Directors Working Group (with C Greene as member of the Working Group and participating in writing of paper, authorship listed in indexing). Practice Patterns of Mitochondrial Disease Physicians in North America. Part 1: Diagnostic and Clinical Challenges. Mitochondrion 14(1): 26-33, Jan 2014 (electronic publication July 26 2013).
  41. Sumit Parikh, Amy Goldstein, Mary Kay Koenig, Fernando Scaglia, Gregory M Enns and Russell Saneto for the Mitochondrial Medicine Society Clinical Directors Working Group (with C Greene as member of the Working Group and participating in writing of paper, authorship listed in indexing). Part 2: Treatment, Care and Management. Mitochondrion 13 (6) 681-687; Nov 2013 2013.09.003 (electronic publication Sept 21, 2013)
  42. R Nguyen, J Kim, N Shet, BMJ D’Othee and C Greene. A 2 year old boy with knee pain, fever and multiple birthmarks. Clinical Pediatrics 53(1): 98-100, Jan 2014
  43. Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: State of the Science and Future Research Needs. KM Camp, MA Parisi et al (with C Greene as one of a number of co-authors). Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Mol Genet Metab 112(2): 87-122 June 2014 and online since 3/6/2014
  44. Parikh S; with C Greene as one of 18 coauthors. Diagnosis and Management of Mitochondrial Disease: A Consensus Statement from the Mitochondrial Medicine Society. Genetics in Medicine . Genet Med advance online publication, December 11, 2014; doi:10.1038/gim.2014.177