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Bizhan  Aarabi
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Bizhan Aarabi M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Neurosurgery
baarabi@smail.umaryland.edu
Location: UMMC South, 12th floor, Suite S12-D, Room 09A
Phone: (410) 328-7371
Phone: (410) 328-3514
Fax: (410) 328-1420

Personal History:

Born in Iran in 1947, I had my education at Ferdowsi Elementary School (1953-59), Saadi High School (1959-1965), Pahlavi University Schools of Arts and Sciences (1965-1967) and Pahlavi University School of Medicine (1967-1973). My neurosurgical internship at the Pahlavi University (1973) was mentored by Kazem Abbassioun (see ref 5), trained by Earl Walker at the Johns Hopkins. I moved to Chicago in 1973 and had one year of straight surgical internship (1973-1974) at the Cook County Hospital of which 6 months was with Roy Selby at the division of neurosurgery affiliated with the University of Illinois College Of Medicine (Chaired by Oscar Sugar). I completed my neurosurgical training under D M Long at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and in July of 1979 moved back to Shiraz to chair the Division of Neurosurgery. During 1982 and 1983 I was certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery and Royal College of Surgeons of Canada respectively. In 1995 I accepted a full time position at the Division of Neurosurgery, University of Nebraska School of Medicine. In 2000, I was recruited as the Director of Neurotrauma at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine.

Research Interests:

Neurotrauma including cervical spine and traumatic brain injuries are my main interests. While at Hopkins, I worked on cold induced vasogenic brain edema in a cat model for one year. In this investigation it was learned that lesion excision completely interrupted edema spread. This study was completed in the Neurosurgical Department laboratory facilities with Drs. Donlin M Long and Melvin Epstein. We also evaluated the effectiveness of choleratoxin on the genesis and spread of cold induced brain edema in cats. From 1980-1988, while at the Shiraz University Medical School, I studied vascular, infectious and epileptic complications of penetrating brain injury in war casualties of Iran-Iraq war. At the University of Nebraska I was the PI of two major multicenter therapeutic trials in severe head injury: CP101-606 and Selfotel. At the University of Maryland we have been intensely involved in PRCT studies of Dexanabinol and COBRIT in TBI. From 2000-2006 we investigated the merits of decompressive craniectomy in severe head injury. One of the clinical studies I am very much interested in is traumatic cervical central cord syndrome. In 2007 the State of Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene funded a randomized study of the timing of decompression in central cord syndrome which was completed in 2009.

Clinical Speciality:

Neurosurgey, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury (CSI), Degenerative cervical spine problems


Awards:

  • Hero Award for Shock Trauma Center for 2012

Committee/Reviewer Information:

  • Section Editor (Traumatic Brain Injury) of Alfredo Quinones (Editor): Comprehensive Multimedia Atlas of Neurosurgery.
  • Reviewer for Journal of Neurosurgery 2012
  • Reviewer for Global Spine Journal 2011

Publications:

Daneshbod K, Aarabi B: Histiocytosis X. Pahlavi Med. X 3:75-79, 1972

Clopper RR, Meyer WJ, Udvarhelyi GB, Money J, Aarabi B, Mulvihill JJ, Piasio J: Post surgical IQ and behavioral data on twenty patients with a history of childhood craniopharyngioma. Psychoneuro-endocrinology 2:365 -372, 1977

Daneshbod K, Aarabi B: Histiocytosis X. Pahlavi Med. J. 3:75-79, 1972.

Clopper RR, Meyer WJ, Udvarhelyi GB, Money J, Aarabi B, Mulvihill JJ, Piasio J: Post-surgical IQ and behavioral data on twenty patients with a history of childhood craniopharyngioma. Psychoneuro-endocrinology 2:365-372, 1977.

Abbassioun SK, Aarabi B, and Zarabi M: A comparative study of physiologic intracranial calcification. Pahlavi Med J. Vol 9:152-165, 1978.

Aarabi B, Chambers J: Giant thrombosed aneurysm associated with an arteriovenous malformation. J of Neurosurgery 49:278-282, 1978.

Aarabi B, Long DM, McQueen JD: Traumatic internal carotid occlusion at the base of the skull. Surgical Neurology 10(4):233-236, 1978.

Aarabi B, Long DM, and Miller NM: Enlarging Optic chiasm glioma with stable visual acuity. Surgical Neurology 10(3):175-177, 1978.

Aarabi B, Long DM, and Epstein M: The effect of Cyclic-AMP on cat brain extracellular fluid. Archives of Neurology 36:498-500, 1979.

Aarabi B, Pasternok G, Herko O, and Long DM: Familial intradural arachnoid cyst. J of Neurosurg 50:826-829, 1979.

Aarabi B, Long DM: Dynamics of cerebral edema (in cat): J of Neurosurg 51:779-784, 1979.

Aarabi B, Udvarhelyi GB: Post-surgical visual and neurological evaluation of 32 children with craniopharyngioma. Iranian Journal of Surgery 2:171-188, 1979.

Aarabi B, Gucer G: Spinal cord lipomas unassociated with spinal bifida. Iranian Journal of Surgery 2: 189-206, 1979.

Perrin RG, Livingston KE, Aarabi B: Intradural extramedullary spinal metastasis. J Neurosurgery 56:835-837, 1982.

Abbassioun K, Aarabi B, Haghshenas M, et al: Spinal cord compression due to extradural extramedullary hematopoiesis in chronic anemias. Iranian J of Medical Sciences 13:21-27, 1986.

Aarabi B: Comparative study of bacteriological contamination between primary and secondary exploration of missile head wounds. Neurosurgery 20:610-616, 1987.

Aarabi B: Traumatic aneurysms due to high velocity missile head wounds. Neurosurgery 22:1056-1063, 1988.

Aarabi B: Causes of infections in penetrating head wounds in the Iran-Iraq War. Neurosurgery 25:913-925, 1989.

Aarabi B: High velocity missile scalp wounds; the tip of an iceberg. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 14:16-23, 1989.

Aarabi B, Koleini MK: Traumatic aneurysms due to missile head wounds: report of twenty cases. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 14:26-32, 1989.

Aarabi B: Relationship of suturing of the dura to cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. Letter to the Editor, Neurosurgery 27:334, 1990

Aarabi B: Surgical outcome in 435 patients who sustained missile head wounds during the Iran-Iraq War. Neurosurgery 27:692-695, 1990.

Aarabi B, and Taghipour M: Causes of infections in penetrating head wounds in the Iran-Iraq War. Iranian J of Medical Sciences 16:7-12, 1991.

Patil AA, Leibrock LG, Kumar PP, and Aarabi B: Stereotactic approach to skull-base lesions. Skull Base Surgery 1:235-239, 1991.

Aarabi B: Brain stem injuries due to missile head wounds during Iran-Iraq War. Iranian J of Medical Sciences 16:117 -123, 1991.

Aarabi B: Surgical mortality in 913 patients who sustained missile head wounds during the Iran-Iraq War. Iranian j of Medical Sciences 17:8-13, 1992.

Aarabi B: Chiasmatic syndrome due to extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta thalassemia. Iranian J of Medical Sciences 17:145-148, 1992.

Patil A, Kumar P, Leibrock L, Gelber B, Aarabi B: The value of intraoperative scans during CT-guided stereotactic procedures. Neuroradiology 34:453-456, 1992.

Aarabi B, Leibrock LG: Neurosurgical approaches to cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal, 71 (7):300-305, July, 1992.

Aarabi B: Transzygomatic approach to skull base tumors, in Samii M (ed), Proceedings of the First International Congress of Skull Base Surgery. Hanover Germany 1993.

Moin H, Taghipour M, Aarabi B: Intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst. Iranian J of Medical Sciences 20:121, 1995.

Aarabi. B: Management of traumatic aneurysms caused by high-velocity missile head wounds. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 6:775-797, 1995.

Aarabi B, Taghipour M, Kamgarpour, and Alibaii EA: Cerebral hydatid cysts. Medical J of Islamic Republic of Iran, 10:1-5, 1996.

Aarabi B, Alibaii EA, Taghipour M, Kamgarpour A: Comparative study of functional recovery between surgically explored and conservatively managed spinal cord missile injuries. Neurosurgery 37:1133-1140, 1996.

Aarabi B, Alibaii EA, Taghipour M, Kamgarpour A: Comparative study of functional recovery for surgically explored and conservatively managed spinal cord missile injuries. Letter to the Editor Neurosurgery 41:1218, 1997

Aarabi B, Haghshenas M, and Rakeii V: Visual failure due to suprasellar extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta thalassemia, case report. NEUROSURGERY 42:923-926, 1998.

Aarabi B, Taghipour M, Alibaii E, Kamgarpour A: Central nervous system infections after military missile head wounds. NEUROSURGERY 42:500-509, 1998.

Aarabi B, Taghipour M, Haghnegahdar A, Farokhi MR, Mobley: Prognostic factors in the occurrence of posttraumatic epilepsy after penetrating head injury suffered during military service. Neurosurgery Focus 8 (1): Article 1, 2000.

Thorell William, Aarabi B: History of neurosurgical techniques in head trauma. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, January 2001.

Aarabi B, Alden TD, Chestnut RM, et al: Management and Prognosis of Penetrating Brain Injury. J Trauma 51 (Suppl): S1-S86, 2001.

Dutton RP, Scalea TM, Aarabi B: Prioritizing surgical needs in the patient with multiple injuries: Problems In Anesthesia 13:310-321, 2001.

Qiu J, Whalen MJ, Lowenstein P, Fiskum G, Fahy B, Darwish R, Aarabi B, Yuan J, Moskowitz MA: Upregulation of the Fas receptor death-inducing signaling complex after traumatic brain injury in mice and humans. J Neurosci 22(9): 3504-11, 2002

Dutton RP, Sewell J, Aarabi B, Scalea TM: Preliminary trial of a noninvasive brain acoustic monitor in trauma patients with severe closed head injury. J Trauma 53:857-63, 2002

Aarabi B: Management of Missile Head Wounds. Neurosurgery Quarterly 13(2): 87-104, 2003

Joseph DK, Dutton RP, Aarabi B, Scalea TM: Decompressive laparotomy to treat intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 57: 687-93, 2004

Martin JE, Mehta R, Aarabi B, Ecklund JE, Martin AH, Ling GS: Intracranial insertion of a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with craniofacial trauma. Mil Med 169: 496-7, 2004

Como JJ, Sutton ER, McCunn M, Dutton RP, Johnson SB, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Characterizing the need for mechanical ventilation following cervical spinal cord injury with neurologic deficit. J Trauma 59: 912-6, Oct 2005

Aarabi B, Hesdorffer DC, Ahn E, Aresco C, Scalea TM, Eisenberg HM: Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling following severe head injury. J. Neurosurgery 104: March 2006, accepted for publication.

Fehlings MG, Furlan JC, Massicotte EM, Arnold P, Aarabi B, Harrop J, Anderson DG, Bono CM, Dvorak M, Fisher C, France J, Hedlund R, Madrazo I, Nockels R, Rampersaud R, Rechtine G, Vaccaro AR; Spine Trauma Study Group. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of maximum canal compromise and spinal cord compression for evaluation of acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 31: 1719-25, July 2006

Miyanji F, Furlan JC, Aarabi B, Arnold PM, Fehlings MG: Correlation of MRI findings with neurological outcome in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: a prospective study in 100 consecutive patients. Radiology 243(3):820-7, 2007.

Anderson PA, Moore TA, Davis KW, Molinari RW, Resnick DK, Vaccaro AR, Bono CM, Dimar JR 2nd, Aarabi B, Leverson G; Spinal Trauma Study Group. Cervical spine injury severity score. Assessment of reliability. J Bone Joint Surg Am 89(5):1057- 65, 2007.

Whang PG, Vaccaro AR, Poelstra KA, Patel AA, Anderson DG, Albert TJ, Hilibrand AS, Harrop JS, Sharan AD, Ratliff JK, Hurlbert RJ, Anderson P, Aarabi B, Sekhon LH, Gahr R, Carrino JA.The influence of fracture mechanism and morphology on the reliability and validity of two novel thoracolumbar injury classification systems. Spine 32(7):791-5. 2007.

Scalea TM, Bochicchio GV, Habashi N, McCunn M, Shih D, McQuillan K, Aarabi B. Increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and intracranial pressure after severe brain injury: multiple compartment syndrome. J Trauma 62(3):647-56, 2007.

Dvorak MF, Fisher CG, Fehlings MG, Rampersaud YR, Oner FC, Aarabi B, Vaccaro AR. The surgical approach to subaxial cervical spine injuries: an evidence-based  algorithm based on the SLIC classification system. Spine 32(23):2620-9 2007.

Vaccaro AR, Hulbert RJ, Patel AA, Fisher C, Dvorak M, Lehman RA Jr, Anderson P, Harrop J, Oner FC, Arnold P, Fehlings M, Hedlund R, Madrazo I, Rechtine G, Aarabi B, Shainline M; Spine Trauma Study Group. The subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: a novel approach to recognize the importance of morphology, neurology, and integrity of the disco-ligamentous complex. Spine 32(21):2365-74, 2007.

Furlan JC, Fehlings MG, Massicotte EM, Aarabi B, Vaccaro AR, Bono CM, Madrazo I, Villanueva C, Grauer JN, Mikulis D. A quantitative and reproducible method to assess cord compression and canal stenosis after cervical spine trauma: a study of interrater and intrarater reliability. Spine 32(19):2083-91, 2007.

Darwish RS, Amiridze N, Aarabi B. Nitrotyrosine as an oxidative stress marker: evidence for involvement in neurologic outcome in human traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 63(2):439-42.2007.

Ahn ES, Aarabi B. Posttraumatic locked-in syndrome from a pontomedullary contusion: case report. J Trauma 63(2):420-3. 2007.

Aarabi B, Koltz M, and Ibrahimi D: Hyperextension cervical spine injuries and traumatic central Cord syndrome. Neurosurg Focus 25 (5): E9, 2008

Szerlip N, Bholot O, McCunn M, Aarabi B, Scalea TM: Extracorporeal life support as a treatment for neurogenic pulmonary edema and craiac failure secondary to intracranial hypertension; a case review and review of the literature. J Trauma 67(3):E69-71, 2009

Aarabi B, Hesdorffer DC, Simard JM, Ahn ES, Aresco C, Eisenberg HM, McCunn M, Scalea T: Comparative study of decompressive craniectomy after mass lesion evacuation in severe head injury. NEUROSURGERY, 64:927-940, 2009.

Aarabi B, Chesler D, Maulucci C, Blacklock T and Alexander M: Dynamic of subdural hygroma following decompressive craniectomy: a comparative study. Neurosurg Focus, June 2009

Aarabi B, Simard M: Traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 15(6)548-553, 2009.

Kahraman S, Dutton RP, Hu P, Xiao Y, Aarabi B, Stein DM, Scalea TM: Automated Measurement of â?oPressure Times Time Doseâ? of Intracranial hypertension best predicts outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2009 Dec 24 [Epub ahead of print].

Stein DM, Menaker J, McQuillan K, Handley C, Aarabi B, Scalea TM: Risk factors for organ dysfunction and failure in patients with acute traumatic cervicsl spinal cord injury. Neurocritical Care, 13 (1):29-39, 2010 .

Furlan JC, Kailaya-Vasan A, Aarabi B, Fehlings MG.A Novel Approach to Quantitatively Assess Posttraumatic Cervical Spinal Canal Compromise and Spinal Cord Compression: A Multicenter Responsiveness Study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Dec 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Lenehan B, Fisher CG, Vaccaro A, Fehlings M, Aarabi B, Dvorak M. The urgency of surgical decompression in acute central cord injuries with spondylosis and without instability. F. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Oct 1;35(21 Suppl):S180-6. Review.

Fehlings MG, Rabin D, Sears W, Cadotte DW, Aarabi B: Current practice in the timing of surgical intervention in spinal cord injury. B.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Oct 1;35(21 Suppl):S166-73. Review.

Aarabi B, Alexander M, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Chesler D, Maulucci C, Iguchi M, Aresco C, Blacklock T. Predictors of outcome in acute traumatic central cord syndrome due to spinal stenosis. J Neurosurg Spine. 14:122-130, 2011.

Stein DM, Kufera JA, Lindell A, Murdock KR, Menaker J, Bochicchio GV, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Association of CSF Biomarkers and Secondary Insults Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocrit Care. 2011 Apr;14(2):200-7.

Bono CM, Schoenfeld A, Gupta G, Harrop JS, Anderson P, Patel AA, Dimar J, Aarabi B, Dailey A, Vaccaro AR, Gahr R, Shaffrey C, Anderson DG, Rampersaud R. Reliability and reproducibility of subaxial cervical injury description system: astandardized nomenclature schema. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Aug 1;36(17):E1140-4. PubMed PMID: 21587109.

Dutton RP, Prior K, Cohen R, Wade C, Sewell J, Fouche Y, Stein D, Aarabi B,Scalea TM. Diagnosing mild traumatic brain injury: where are we now? J Trauma.2011 Mar;70(3):554-9. PubMed PMID: 21610342.

Stein DM, Lindell A, Murdock KR, Kufera JA, Menaker J, Keledjian K, BochicchioGV, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Relationship of serum and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkerswith intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2011 May;70(5):1096-103. PubMed PMID: 21610426.

Stein DM, Hu PF, Brenner M, Sheth KN, Liu KH, Xiong W, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Brief episodes of intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion areassociated with poor functional outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2011 Aug;71(2):364-74. PubMed PMID: 21825940

Cheran S, Shanmuganathan K, Zhuo J, Mirvis SE, Aarabi B, Alexander MT,Gullapalli RP. Correlation of MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters with ASIA Motor Scores in Hemorrhagic and Nonhemorrhagic Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21875333.

Kurland D, Hong C, Aarabi B, Gerzanich V, Simard JM.  Hemorrhagic Progress of A Contusion After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review.  J. Neurotrauma.  2012 Jan 1;29(1):19-31. 

Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Eilson JR, Singh A, W Cadotte D, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey C, Dvorak M, Fisher C, Arnold P, Massicotte EM, lewis S, Rampersaud R.  Early Versus Delayed Decompression for Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS).  PLoS One.  2012; 7(2):e32037. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

Stein DM, Lindell AL, Murdock KR, Kufera JA, Menaker J, Bochicchio GV, Aarabi B, Scalea TM.  Use of Serum Biomarkers to Predict Cerebral Hypoxia After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.  J Neurotrauma. 2012 Apr 10;29(6):1140-9.

Brenner M, Stein DM, Hu PF, Aarabi B, Sheth K, Scalea TM.  Traditional systolic blood pressure targets underestimate hypotension-induced secondary brain injury.  J. Trauma Acute Care Surg.  2012 May; 72(5):1135-9.

Aarabi B, Simard JM, Kufera JA, Alexander M, Zacherl KM, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Schwartzbauer G, Maulucci CM, Slavin J, Ali K, Massetti J, Eisenber HM.  Intramedullary lesion expansion on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with motor complete cervical spinal cord injury.  J Neurosurgery Spine.  2012 Jul 13 [Epub ahead of print].

Wilson JR, Grossman RG, Frankowski R, Kiss A, Davis AM, Kulkarini A, Harrop JS, Aarabi B,Vaccaro A, Tator CH, Dvorak MF, Shaffrey Cl, Harkema S, Guest J, Fehlings M.  J. Neurotrauma.  2012 Jun 18 [Epub ahead of print].

Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, Kopj ar 8, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey CI, Dvorak MF, Fisher CG, Arnold PM, Massicotte EM, Lewis SJ, Ramper saud YR. Fehlings et al respond. Spine J. 2012 Jun;12( 6) :541-2. PubMed PMID : 22857648.

Wilson JR, Vaccaro A, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey C, Dvorak M, Fishe r C, Arnold P, Massicotte EM, Lewis S, Rampersaud R, Okonkwo DO, Fehlings MG. The Impact of Facet Dislocation on Clinical Outcomes after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results of a Multicenter North American Prospective Cohort Study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22895481.

Aarabi B, Harrop JS, Tator CH, Alexander M, Dettori JR, Grossman RG, Fehlings MG, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Zacherl KM, Burau KD, Frankowski RF, Toups E, Shaffrey CI, Guest JD, Harkema SJ, Habashi NM, Andrews P, Johnson MM, Rosner MK. Predictors of pulmonary complications in blunt traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 20 12 Sepi17(1):38-45. PubMed PMID : 22985369.

Guest J, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Grossman RG, Fawcett JW, Fehlings MG, Tator CH . Optimization of the decision-making process for the selection of therapeutics to undergo clinical testing for spinal cord injury in the North American Clinical Trials Network. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sept17(1) :94-101. PubMed PMID: 22985376.

Grossman RG, Frankowski RF, Burau KD, Toups EG, Crommett JW, Johnson MM, Fehlings MG, Tator CH, Shaffrey CI, Harkema SJ , Hodes JE, Aarabi B, Rosner MK, Guest JD, Harrop JS. Incidence and severity of acute complications after spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine . 2012 Sept17(1) :119-28. PubMed PMID: 22985378.

Chow DS, Teng Y, Toups EG, Aarabi B, Harrop JS, Shaffrey CI, Johnson MM , Boakye M, Frankowski RF, Fehlings MG, Grossman RG. Pharmacology of riluzole in acute spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sept17(1) :129-40. PubMed PMID: 22985379 .

Fehlings MG, Wilson JR, Frankowski RF, Toups EG, Aarabi B, Harrop JS, Shaffrey CI, Harkema SJ, Guest JD, Tator CH, Burau KD, Johnson MW, Grossman RG. Riluzole for the treatment of acute traumatic spinal cord injury: rationale for and design of the NACTN Phase I clinical trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sept17(1) :151-6. PubMed PMID: 22985381.

Tator CH, Hashimoto R, Raich A, Norvell D, Fehlings MG, Harrop JS, Guest J, Aarabi B, Grossman RG. Translational potential of preclinical trials of neuroprotection through pharmacotherapy for spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sept17 (1):157-229 . PubMed PMID: 22985382.

Harrop JS, Hashimoto R, Norvell D, Raich A, Aarabi B, Grossman RG, Guest JD, Tator CH, Chapman J, Fehlings MG. Evaluation of clinical experience using cell-based therapies in patients with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sept17(1):230-46. PubMed PMID: 22 985 383.

Dhall SS, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC. Nutritional support after spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:255-9. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827728d9. PubMed PMID: 23417196.

Dhall SS, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC. Deep venous thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:244-54. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827728c0. PubMed PMID: 23417195.

Harrigan MR, Hadley MN, Dhall SS, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N. Management of vertebral artery injuries following non-penetrating cervical trauma. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:234-43. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827765f5. PubMed PMID: 23417194.

Rozzelle CJ, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:227-33. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182770ebc. PubMed PMID: 23417193.

Rozzelle CJ, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Management of pediatric cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:205-26. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318277096c. PubMed PMID: 23417192.

Aarabi B, Hadley MN, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC. Management of acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS). Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:195-204. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276f64b. PubMed PMID: 23417191.

Gelb DE, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Treatment of subaxial cervical spinal injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:187-94. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276f637. PubMed PMID: 23417190.

Rozzelle CJ, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Os odontoideum. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:159-69. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee69. PubMed PMID: 23417188.

Ryken TC, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Theodore N, Walters BC. Management of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:151-8. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee55. PubMed PMID: 23417187.

Ryken TC, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Theodore N, Walters BC. Management of isolated fractures of the axis in adults. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:132-50. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee40. PubMed PMID: 23417186.

Ryken TC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Theodore N, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Management of isolated fractures of the atlas in adults. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:127-31. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee2a. PubMed PMID: 23417185.

Theodore N, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Walters BC, Hadley MN. The diagnosis and management of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:114-26. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827765e0. PubMed PMID: 23417184.

Theodore N, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Occipital condyle fractures. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:106-13. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182775527. PubMed PMID: 23417183.

Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N. Pharmacological therapy for acute spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:93-105. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827765c6. PubMed PMID: 23417182.

Ryken TC, Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Rozzelle CJ, Theodore N, Walters BC. The acute cardiopulmonary management of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:84-92. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee16. PubMed PMID: 23417181.

Gelb DE, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N, Walters BC. Initial closed reduction of cervical spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:73-83. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276ee02. PubMed PMID: 23417180.

Ryken TC, Hadley MN, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Theodore N. Radiographic assessment. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:54-72. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276edee. PubMed PMID: 23417179.

Hadley MN, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N. Clinical assessment following acute cervical spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:40-53. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276edda. PubMed PMID: 23417178.

Theodore N, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Walters BC, Hadley MN. Transportation of patients with acute traumatic cervical spine injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:35-9. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276edc5. PubMed PMID: 23417177.

Theodore N, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Hurlbert RJ, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Walters BC. Prehospital cervical spinal immobilization after trauma. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:22-34. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276edb1. PubMed PMID: 23417176.

Aarabi B, Tofighi B, Kufera JA, Hadley J, Ahn ES, Cooper C, Malik JM, Naff NJ, Chang L, Radley M, Kheder A, Uscinski RH. Predictors of outcome in civilian gunshot wounds to the head. J Neurosurg. 2014 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24506239.

Aarabi B, Mirvis S, Shanmuganathan K, Vaccaro AR, Holmes CJ, Akhtar-Danesh N, Fehlings MG, Dvorak MF. Comparative effectiveness of surgical versus nonoperative management of unilateral, nondisplaced, subaxial cervical spine facet fractures without evidence of spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Mar;20(3):270-7. doi: 10.3171/2013.11.SPINE13733. Epub 2014 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 24405465.

Sours C, Zhuo J, Janowich J, Aarabi B, Shanmuganathan K, Gullapalli RP. Default mode network interference in mild traumatic brain injury - a pilot resting state study. Brain Res. 2013 Nov 6;1537:201-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.08.034. Epub 2013 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 23994210; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3835746.

Vaccaro AR, Oner C, Kepler CK, Dvorak M, Schnake K, Bellabarba C, Reinhold M, Aarabi B, Kandziora F, Chapman J, Shanmuganathan R, Fehlings M, Vialle L; AOSpine Spinal Cord Injury & Trauma Knowledge Forum. AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system: fracture description, neurological status, and key modifiers. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Nov 1;38(23):2028-37. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182a8a381. PubMed PMID: 23970107.

Grossman RG, Fehlings MG, Frankowski RF, Burau KD, Chow DS, Tator C, Teng A, Toups EG, Harrop JS, Aarabi B, Shaffrey CI, Johnson MM, Harkema SJ, Boakye M, Guest JD, Wilson JR. A prospective, multicenter, phase I matched-comparison group trial of safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of riluzole in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Feb 1;31(3):239-55. doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.2969. Epub 2013 Oct 11. PubMed PMID: 23859435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3904533.