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Robert R. Redfield Jr.

Robert R. Redfield Jr. M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Medicine
Secondary Appointments: Institute of Human Virology, Microbiology and Immunology
Administrative Title: Division Head, Infectious Diseases
Additional Title(s): Director, Division of Clinical Care and Research, Institute of Human Virology; Associate Director, Institute of Human Virology; Chief of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine; Vice Chair of Medicine for Clinical Affairs, Department of Medicine
Location: 725 West Lombard Street N562
Phone: (410) 706-4613
Fax: (410) 706-4619

Research Interests:

Dr. Redfield has been actively engaged in clinical research and clinical care of chronic human viral infections, especially HIV. His dominant area of research interest is the development of novel biological approaches to the treatment of chronic viral pathogens with a particular focus of targeting host cell pathways for their therapeutic potential. Several novel areas under active translation investigation include: targeting key biochemical pathways of  nucleotide biosynthesis to enhance activity of  specific antiretroviral medication; targeting cell activation with specific cell cycles as a primary treatment target; use of G1 cell cycle agents to down regulate expression of key HIV host cell receptors; use of G1 cell cycles to enhance antiviral activity of HIV entry inhibitors; and the use of HIV specific proteins as therapeutic vaccines. 

Dr. Redfield is also actively involved in clinical research focused on the evaluation of alterative HIV-treatment strategies designed to improve treatment outcome and the evaluation of new commercially developed antiviral medications. The clinical research unit which he oversees has more than 30 active intervention trials. Dr. Redfield’s research focus is driven by his goal to develop durable treatment for persons living with HIV infection and other chronic viral infections in the US and throughout the world, including resource-limited settings.
Presently, Dr. Redfield oversees an extensive clinical program providing HIV care and treatment to more than 4,000 patients in the Baltimore–Washington community. He also oversees an extensive care and treatment program as part of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, which is active in 9 countries in Africa and the Caribbean and is now providing ARV treatment to more than 50,000 perople living with HIV. Treatment programs outcome improvement is driven by targeted program evaluation and operational research.

Dr Redfield serves as a member of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS as well as being the Chair of the International Subcommittee. He has also recently completed terms on NIH’s Advisory Council for the Office of AIDS Research and the Advisory Board of the NIH’s Fogarty International Center.


Redfield R R, Markham PD, Salahuddin SZ, Sarngadharan MG, Bodner AJ, Folks TM, Ballou WR, Wright DC, Gallo RC.  Frequent Transmission of HTLV-III Among Spouses of Patients with AIDS-Related Complex and AIDS.  JAMA 1985;  253(11):1571-1573.

Redfield R R, Markham PD, Salahuddin SZ, Wright DC, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC. Heterosexually Acquired HTLV III/LAV Disease (AIDS-Related Complex and AIDS). JAMA 1985; 254 (15); 2094-2096.

Redfield R R, Wright DC, Tramont EC. The Walter Reed Staging Classification for HTLV-III, LAV Infection. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 131-132.

Redfield R R, Birx DL, Ketter N, Polonis V, Davis C, Smith G, Johnson S, Fowler A, Brundage JF, Wierzba T, Shafferman A, Volvovitz F, Oster C, Tramont EC, Burke DS.  HIV Vaccine Therapy Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Post  Infection Immune Modification by Active Immunization with Recombinant GP 160. N Eng J Med.1991; 324: 1677-1684.

Michael N, Morrow P, Mosca J, Vahey MT, Burke DS, Redfield R R. Induction of HIV-1 Expression in Chronically Infected Cells is Associated Primarily with a Shift in RNA Spacing Patterns. J Virology 1991: 65 (7084).

Michael NL, Vahey M, Burke DS, Redfield R R. Viral DNA and mRNA Expression Correlate with the State of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Infection in Humans: Evidence for Viral Replication in all Stages of HIV Disease.  J of Virology 1992; 66 (1): 310-316.

Michael NL, d’Arcy L, Ehrenberg PK, Vahey MT, Birx DL, Redfield R R. 1994. Naturally Occurring Genotypes of the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat Display, A Wide Range of Transcriptional Competency. J of Virology   1994; 68: 3163-3174.

Margolis D, Heredia A, Gaywee J, Drusano G, Oldach D, Redfield R R  Abacavir and mycophenolic acid, an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, have profound and synergistic anti-HIV activity. J AIDS. 1999;21:362-370.

Heredia A, Margolis D, Oldach D, Hazen R, Nhut L, Redfield R. Abacavir in combination with the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)-inhibitor mycophenolic acid is active against multidrug-resistant HIV-1. J AIDS. 1999;22:406-412.

Birx DL, Loomis-Price LD, Aronson N, Brundage J, Davis C, Deyton L, Garner R, Gordin F, Henry D, Holloway W, Kerkering T, Luskin-Hawk R, McNeil J, Michael N, Foster Pierce P, Poretz D, Ratto-Kim S, Renzullo P, Ruiz N, Sitz K, Smith G, Tacket C, Thompson M, Tramont E, Yangco B, Yarrish R, Redfield RR. Efficacy testing of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp160 as a therapeutic vaccine in early-stage HIV-1-infected volunteers. rgp160 Phase II Vaccine Investigators. J Infect Dis. 2000; 181:881-9.

Heredia A, Davis C, Redfield RR. Synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 in activated and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and selected drug-resistant isolates with nucleoside analogues combined with a natural product, Resveratrol. J AIDS. 2000; JAIDS, 2000; 25(3):246-255.

Davis C, Heredia A, Le N, Dominique JK, Redfield RR. Differential Human Immunodeficiency Virus-suppressive Activity of Reverse Transcription Inhibitors in Resting and Activated Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. JHV. May/June 2001;4(3):113-22.

Heredia A, Davis C, Amoroso A, Dominique JK, Le N, Klingebiel E, Reardon E, Zella D, Redfield RR. Induction of G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Results in Increased Extracellular Levels of RANTES, MIP-1α and MIP-1β: a Strategy to Inhibit Replication of R5 strains of HIV-1. Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003;100:4179-4184

Heredia A, Amoroso A, Davis C, Le N, Reardon E, Dominique JK, Klingebiel E, Gallo RC, Redfield RR.  Rapamycin causes downregulation of CCR5 and accumulation of anti-HIV ß -chemokines:  an approach to suppress R5 strains of HIV-1. Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. USA, 2003;100:10411-10416

Alonso Heredia, Charles Davis, Douty Bamba, Nhut Le, Muhammad Y. Gwarzo, Mariola Sadowska, Robert C. Gallo, Robert R. Redfield  Indirubin-3’-monoxime, a derivative of a Chinese antileukemia medicine, inhibits P-TEFb function and HIV-1 replication. AIDS 2005, 19:2087-2095