Hypertension in special populations (elderly,diabetics and other concomitant diseases,and ethnic groups such as African Americans) Efficacy and Safety trials with anti-hypertensive drugs ,pre and post FDA approval.
Clinical SpecialityCardiology and Hypertension
Lab Techniques and Equipment* Test anti-hypertensive drugs
* 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring
* Extra-vascular stimulation to lower BP
Grants, Contracts, Partnerships:
Multiple pharmaceutical grants ; NIH grant; partnership with a community hospital; also collaborate with professional and lay communities (churches) to improve BP control
Herbert W. Nickens Award Lecture:
“Diversity and Disparities in Medical Education and Patient Care”
McCrumb Jr FR, Kress S, Saunders E, Snyder MM, Schluederberg A. Studies with live attenuated measles-virus vaccine. (Clinical and immunologic responses in institutionalized children). Amer. J of Diseases of Children 1961; 101:689-712.
Attar S., Saunders E., McLaughlin J., Scherlis, L., RA. Prosthetic heart valve surgery - evaluation of early and late complications. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1966; 2:52-63.
Attar S, Saunders E, McLaughlin J, Scherlis L, Cowley RA. Prosthetic heart valve surgery in acquired valvular heart disease. American Surgeon, Jan. 1966; 33(4):294-297.
Saunders E, Curry C, Hinds J, Kong B, Medakovic M, Poland M, Roper K. Labetalol compared with propranolol in the treatment of black hypertensive patients. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 1987; 3:294-302.
Saunders E. Special management techniques for hypertension in blacks. Journal of Clinical Hypertension 1987; 3:16-20.
Maxwell MH, Morton H, Garrett BN, Saunders E, Schnaper H. Postmarketing survey of the effects of an Atenolol/Chlorthalidone combination in the treatment of hypertension. Clinical Therapeutics 1987; Vol. 9, No. 4 Exerpta Medical 1987; 380-389.
Weir M, Josselson J, Girard MJ, Warren JB, Posner JN, Lam YW, Zaske DE, Saunders E. Sustained-release dilitizem compared with atenolol monotherapy for mild to moderate systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, December 14, 1987; 60(17):361-411.
Saunders E. Stepped Care and Profiled Care in the Treatment of Hypertension: Considerations for Black Americans. Am. J. Med. 9:380-389, 1987.
Saunders E. Hypertension in Blacks. Med. Clin. North Am. 71:1013-1029, 1987.
Saunders E. Drug treatment considerations for the hypertensive black patient. Journal of Family Practice 1988 (June); 26(6):659-664.
Weir M, Saunders E. Pharmacologic management of hypertension in blacks. American Journal of Cardiology, June 15, 1988; 61(16):46H-52H.
Weir MR, Kritchen C, Urick A, Saunders E, Lavin PT. Comparison of enalipril and hydrochlorothiazide in mild hypertension and changes in plasma lipid concentrations during therapy. Clinical Therapeutics 1988; 10:712-724.
Kaplan NM, Alderman MH, Flamebaum W, McCarron DA, Perry HM, Saunders E, Schoenberger JA. Guidelines for the treatment of hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension 1989 (Feb); 2(2pt1):75-77.
Wallin J.D., Fletcher E., Ram C.V., Cook M.E., Cheung D.G., MacCarthy E.P., Townsend R. Saunders E., Davis W.R., Langford H.G., et. al. Intravenous Nicardipine for the Treatment of Severe Hypertension. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 149:2662-2669, 1989.
Materson B.J., Vlachakis N.D., Glasser S.P., Lucas C. Ramanathan K.B., Ahmad S., Morledge J. H., Saunders E., Lutz L.J., Schnaper H.W., et. al. Influence of Beta 2 Agonism and Beta 1 and Beta Antagonism on Adverse Effects and Plasma Lipoproteins: Results of a Multicenter Comparison of Dilevalol and Metoprolol. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 81:5-11, 1989.
Saunders E, Weir MR, Kong BW, et. al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of a beta-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a converting enzyme inhibitor in hypertensive blacks. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990; 150:1707-1713.
Weir M.R., Vlachkis N.D., DeQuattro V., Douglas J., Svetkey L.P., Singh S., Wiedl S.C., Chen C.F., Woodward D.L., Saunders E. Evaluation of the Clinical Pharmacology of Nilvadipine in Patients with Mild to Moderate Essential Hypertension. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 30:425-437, 1990.
Croog SH, Kong BW, Levine S, Weir MW, Baume RM, Saunders E. Hypertensive black men and women. Quality of life and effects of antihypertensive medications. Black quality of life multi-center trial group. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990; 150:1733-1741.
Weir MR, Cassidy CA, Hall PS, Lancaster A, Schubert C, Urick A, Saunders E, Kong BW, Jenkins P, Lavin PT. Efficacy and tolerability of enalapril and sustained-release verapamil in older patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Clinical Therapy 1990; 12:139-148.
Saunders E. The Safety and Efficacy of Terazosin in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension in Blacks. Am. Heart J. 122:936-942, 1991.
Hildreth C.J., Saunders E. Hypertension in Blacks. MD Med. J. 40:213-217, 1991.
Hildreth C., Saunders E. Hypertension in Blacks: Clinical Review. Cardiovasc. Clin. 21:85-86, 1991.
Saunders E. Hypertension in Minorities: Blacks. Am. J. Hypertens. 8:115s-119s, 1995.
Saunders E. Recruitment of African-American Patients for Clinical Trials—The Allhat Challenges. Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Trial to Prevent Heart Attack. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 87:627-629, 1995.
Saunders E. Pharmacologic Initiatives in Black Hypertensives. PA Med. 98:34-38, 1995.
Weir MR, Gray JM, Paster R, Saunders E. Differing mechanisms of action of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in black and white hypertensive patients. The trandolapril multi center study group. Hypertension, July 1995; 26(1):124-130.
Saunders E, Neutel J. A new antihypertensive strategy for black patients: low-dose multimechanism therapy. Journal of the National Medical Association 1996; 171-175.
Weir MR, Saunders E. Renin status does not predict the antihypertensive response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in African Americans. American Journal of Hypertension 1996.
Weir MR, Sugimoto D, Gray J, Black H, Saunders E, Applegate W, Davidson J, Ginsberg D, Marbury T, Moser M, Cziner D, deSalva J, Mills D, Rosenblum J, Hall WD. Safety and efficacy of once-daily captopril plus hydrochlorothiazide vs. nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system in black patients with mild to moderate hypertension. American Journal of Therapeutics 1996; 3:811-817.
Saunders, E., Goldsweig, HF.: Antihypertensive, Anti - anginal, and Anti - ischemic Effects of Mibefradil, AT- Type Calcium Channel Antagonist, in Black Patients. J Natl Med Assn, May 1998.
Flack J.M., Yunis C., Preisser J., Holmes C.B., Mensah G., McLean B., Saunders E. The Rapidity of Drug Dose Escalation Influences Blood Pressure Response and Adverse Effects Burden in Patients with Hypertension: The Quinapril Titration Interval Management (ATIME) Study. ATIME Research Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 160:1842-1847, 2000.
Noel H.C., Saunders E., Smolensky M.H. Hypertension, Chronotherapy and Patient Management. Nurse Pract. 25:2-10, 2000.
Saunders E., Ferdinand K., Yellen L.G., Tonkon M.J., Krug-Gourley S., Poland M. Efficacy and Safety of Cerivastatin and Pravastatin in the Treatment of Primary Hypercholesterolemia. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 92:319-326, 2000.
Clark, L.T., Ferdinand, K.C., Flack, J.M., Gavin, James R., Hall, W.D., Kumanyika, S.K., Reed, J.W., Saunders, E., Valantine, H.A., Watson, K., Wenger, N.K., Wright, J.T. Coronary Heart Disease in African Americans. Heart Disease, Vol. 3, No.2, March, 2001.
Saunders, E., Gavin, JR., Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System in African Americans With Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. Supplement Vol. V No. 1 January/February, 2003. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.
Douglas J.D., Saunders, E., et. al. Management of High Blood Pressure in African Americans, Consensus Statement of Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the Int. Svc. On Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med., Vol. 163. March 10, 2003.
Flack J, Oparil S, Pratt H, Roniker B, Garthwaite S, Kleiman J, Yang Y, Krause S, Workman D, Saunders E. Efficacy and Tolerability of Eplerenone and Losartan in Hypertensive Black and White Patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 41, No. 7, April 2, 2003.
White W.B., Saunders, E., et. al. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Nisoldipine Extended Release (ER) and Amlopidine (CESNA-III study) in African American Patients With Hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 16., No. 9. September 2003.
Hall WD, Clark LT, Wenger NK, Wright JT, Kumanyika SK, Watson K, Horton EW, Flack JM, Ferdinand KC, Gavin JR, Reed JW, Saunders E, O’Neal W; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review. Ethn Dis Vol 4, 414-28, 2003.
Hall WD, Clark LT, Wenger NK, Wright JT, Kumanyika SK, Watson K, Horton EW, Flack JM, Ferdinand KC, Gavin JR, Reed JW, Saunders E, O’Neal W. For the patient. What is the Metabolic Syndrome and why is it important? Ethn Dis Vol. 13, 546, 2003.
White WB, Saunders E, Noveck RJ, Ferdinand K. Comparative efficacy and safety of Nisoldipine extended-release (ER) and amlodipine (CESNA-III study) in African American patients with hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension Vol 16, 739-45, 2003.
Mullins CD, Shaya FT, Flowers LR, Saunders E, Johnson W, Wong W. Health care cost of analgesic use in hypertensive patients. Clinical Therapy Vol. 26, 285-93, February, 2004.
Mokwe E., Ohmit SE., Nasser SA, Shafi T., Saunders E., Crook E, Dudley A, Flack JM. Determinants of blood pressure in response to Quinapril in black and white hypertensive patients: the Quinapril Titration Interval Management Evaluation trial. Hypertension, Vol. 43: 1202-7, April, 2004.
\Shaya, F.T., Shin, J., Mullins, D., Fatodu, H., Gu, A., Saunders, E. Medicaid Managed Care: Disparities in the Use of Thiazolidinediones Compared with Metformin. Journal of the National Medical Association, Vol. 97, No. 4, April, 2005.
Smith SC, Clark LT, Cooper RS, Daniels SR, Kumanyika SK, Ofili E, Quinones MA, Sanchez EJ, Saunders E, Tiukinhoy SD; American Heart Association Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group. Discovering the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease: Minority Health Summit 2003: report of the Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group. Circulation, Vol. 111, 134-9, March, 2005.
Hertz, RP., Saunders, E. Racial Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness and Management . Arch Inter Med.,/Vol. 165, Feb. 14, 2005.
Neutel, JM., Saunders, E., Bakris, GL., Cushman, WC., Ferdinand, KC., Ofili, EO., Sowers, JR., Webb, MA., INCLUSIVE Investigators. The Efficacy and Safety of Low-and High-Dose Fixed Combinations of Irbesartan/Hydrochlorothiazide in Patients With Uncontrolled Systolic Blood Pressure on Monotherapy: The INCLUSIVE Trial, The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Vol 7 No. 10 October, 2005.
Saunders E, Smith WB, DeSalvo KB, Sullivan WA. The Efficacy and Tolerability of Nebivolol in Hypertensive African American Patients. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Vol. 9, No. 11, November 2007.
Flack JM, Victor R, Watson K, Ferdinand KC, Saunders E, Tarasenko L, Jamieson MJ, Shi H, Bruschi P. Improved Attainment of Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Goals Using Single-Pill Amlodipine/Atorvastatin in African Americans: The CAPABLE Trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 83, No. 1, 35-45, January 2008.
Saunders E, Ofili E. Epidemiology of Atherothrombotic Disease and the Effectiveness and Risks of Antiplatelet Therapy: Race and Ethnicity Considerations. Cardiology in Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, March/April 2009.
Robinson SW, Saunders E. Will Race Matter in the Era of Personalized Medicine? Cardiology Today, September, 2009.
Saunders E. Commentary on “Hypertension”, “Applying Treatment guidelines to Patient Care”, Cardiology Review, September 2001, 18:10
Saunders E. Clinical Therapeutics “Antihypertensive Efficacy and Safety of Losartan Alone and in Combination with Hydrochlorothiazide in Adult African Americans with Mild To Moderate Hypertension”, August 2001 23:8.
Saunders E, Johnson, W. Management of High-Risk Hypertension Patients. Cardiology Special Edition, Vol. 8, No.2 of 2, 2002.
Saunders E, Gavin JR, III. Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System in African Americans With Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension: Supplement 1, Vol. V, No. 1, Jan/Feb., 2003
Saunders E. Managing Hypertension in the African American Patient. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension: Supplement 1, Vol. VI, April, 2004.
Saunders E. Hypertension in the High-Risk Patient: Focus on African Americans. Cardiology Special Edition Vol. 10, 2004.
Saunders E. BP Control Essential for Diabetics. Renal & Urology News. Editor, Charnow, JA. August , 2005.
Stewart D, Johnson W, Saunders E. Hypertension in Black Americans as a Special Population: Why So Special? Current Cardiology Reports, Vol. 8, No. 6, November 2006.
Saunders E. Racial Disparities in Hypertension. Cardiology Quarterly, First Quarter 2007.
Saunders E, Shulman N, Hall D. High Blood Pressure in Blacks: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment. Chicago, IL:Yearbook Medical Publishers, 1985.
Saunders E, et al. Blood Pressure: Its Control and Measurement, Practitioners Manual, Fourth Edition, Revised, May, 1985.
Shulman NB, Saunders E, Hall WD. High Blood Pressure. New York, NY:Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987.
Shulman NB, Saunders E, Hall WD. High Blood Pressure. New York, NY:Macmillan Publishing Company, 1997. Revised.
Shulman NB, Saunders E, Hall WD. Three medical experts tell you the basic facts about high blood pressure. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, Special Sales Department, 1987 (excerpted from High Blood Pressure).
Saunders E, Editor. Cardiovascular Diseases in Blacks. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company, 1991.
Saunders E, Johnson W. Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in African Americans. Newton, PA: Handbooks in Health Care, 2003.
Saunders E, Johnson W. Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in African Americans. Newton, PA: Handbooks in Health Care, Update in print 2006
Saunders E, Editor. Cardiovascular Diseases in Blacks. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company, 1991. Revision to be published in 2006.
Saunders, E. Tenoretic Evaluation Program: Findings Pertaining to Black Patients, pages 31-36, 1985. (Co-Editors: Garret, Bruce N.; Saunders, E., Schnaper, Harold and Sullivan, Jay).
Saunders E, Blaustein, Mordecai P. The Silent Killer, University of Maryland Medical System and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Maryland Medicine, Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 3-5, 1985.
Saunders E, Smith HT. The Hypertensive Black Patient. University of Maryland School of Medicine. Clinician, Vol 10, No 6, pp.1-12, 1992.
Saunders E. Introduction: "Hypertension in African-Americans - Historical Perspective, Current Concepts, Future Goals." In: Emerging Perspectives in Hypertension: Focus on the African-American patient. Health Care Communications, Inc., Fort Lee, NJ, 1994.
Saunders E, Reed JW. Emerging perspectives in hypertension: focus on the African-American patient historical perspective, current concepts, future goals. Health Care Communications, Inc., Fort Lee, NJ, September 1994.
Saunders E, Flack JM. A target in hypertensive disease in African American patients. Health Care Communications, Inc., Fort Lee, NJ, November 1995.
Saunders E, editor, Redefining Clinical Practice Patterns for CV Risk Reduction (A CME program published under the auspices of the Coalition for the Advancement of Cardiovascular Health (COACH) April, 2002.
Saunders, E. editor, Redefining Clinical Practice Patterns for CV Risk Reduction (Slide Kit on CD-ROM) Coalition for the Advancement of Cardiovascular Health (COACH) March, 2002.
Saunders, E. editor, Establishing a pattern for prevention of CV events: Focus on RAAS manipulation (A CME program published under the auspices of the Coalition for the Advancement of Cardiovascular Health (COACH) August, 2004.
Saunders, E. editor, The Challenge of Cardioprotection: Redefining RAAS Modulation (A CME program published under the auspices of the Coalition for the Advancement of Cardiovascular Health (COACH) August, 2005.
Saunders, E. editor, ACE inhibition and cardiovascular protection: The PEACE conflict (A CME program published under the auspices of the Coalition for the Advancement of Cardiovascular Health (COACH) January, 2005.
Saunders, E. editor, Redefining Cardioprotection: The Evolution of RAAS Modulation, 2005 COACH RAAS Core Curriculum.
Saunders, E. , Dennison, Cheryl R. Managing Hypertension in Primary Care Practice: What’s New and What Needs to Change (Live Web Conference) May 12, 2005.
Saunders, E. editor, Patient Care Seminar: Challenges and Opportunities in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. COACH October, 2005.
Saunders E. Textbook of Black Related Diseases, Chapter 7, "Hypertension," McGraw Hill Publishers, 1975; 333-356.
Saunders E. Special techniques for management of hypertension in blacks, Chapter 14, "Hypertension in Blacks", Yearbook Medical Publishers 1985; 209-236.
Davidson P, Saunders E. "Epidemiologic and clinical comparison of cardiovascular disease in blacks and whites in the USA." In: Cruickshank JK, Beevers DG, ed. Ethnic Factors in Health and Disease. Butterworth & Co., Ltd. 1989; 48-47.
Saunders E. "Therapy of hypertension in the black patient." In: Puschett JB, Greenberg G, ed. Diuretics III., Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Applications. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., 1990; 457-465.
Hildreth C, Saunders E. "Hypertension in Blacks: Clinical Overview." Cardiovascular Diseases in Blacks, F. A. Davis, Company, Philadelphia, PA 1991; 85-96.
Saunders E. "Hypertension in Blacks." Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, Philadelphia, PA, 1991;Vol 18, Number 3:607-622.
Hildreth C, Saunders E. "Heart Disease, Stroke and Hypertension in Blacks." In: Health Issues in the Black Community. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1992; 90-105.
Keys I, Saunders E. "Therapy for the black hypertensive." In: Individualized Therapy of Hypertension. Edited by Kaplan, NM and Ram CV. New York, NY, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1994; 83-94.
Satcher D, Pamies R, Jones-Burton C, Saunders E, "Multicultural Medicine and Health Disparities." Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, and Renal Disease: A Focus on African Americans, 2005.
Saunders E, Johnson W. Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in African Americans, Newton, PA: Handbooks in Health Care, 2009 (Update)