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Publications - Typhoid

Black RE, Levine MM, Young CR, Rooney J, Levine S, Clements ML, O'Donnell S, Hughes TP, Chilean Typhoid Committee, Germanier R. Immunogenicity of Ty21a attenuated Salmonella typhi given with sodium bicarbonate or in enteric-coated capsules. Develop. Biol. Standard. 1982;53:9-14.

Levine MM, Black RE, Lanata C, Chilean Typhoid Committee. A precise estimation of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers in Santiago, Chile, an endemic area. J. Infect. Dis. 1982;146:724-726.

Lanata CF, Levine MM, Ristori C, Black RE, Jimenez L, Salcedo M, Garcia J, Sotomayor V. Vi Serology in the detection of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers in an endemic area. Lancet. 1983;II:441-443.

Taylor DN, Harris JR, Barrett TJ, Hargrett NT, Valdivieso C, Palomino C, Levine MM, Blake PA. Detection of urinary Vi antigen as a diagnostic test for typhoid fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1983;18:872-876.

Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Manterola A, Rodriguez G, Rivara I, Prentzel I, Black RE, Mancuso T, Bulas D. Benign bacteremia due to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in children Less than two years of age. J. Pediat. 1984;104:899-901.

Sears SD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Cordano AM, Monreal J, Black RE, D'Ottone K, Rowe B, Chilean Typhoid Committee. Isolation of Salmonella typhi from irrigation water in Santiago, Chile using Moore swabs. J. Infect. Dis. 1984;149:640-642.

Morris JG Jr, Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobos H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. Typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile: a study of household contacts of pediatric patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1984;33:1198-1202.

Murray BE, Levine MM, Cordano AM, D'Ottone K, Jayanetra P, Kopecko D, Pan-Urai R, Prenzel I. Possible Reasons for the Paucity of Resistance Plasmids in Salmonella typhi. J. Infect. Dis. 1985;151:551-555.

Morris JG, Tenney JH, Drusano GL. In vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Vibrio species to norfloxacin and six other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1985;28:442-445.

Black RE, Cisneros L, Levine MM, Banfi A, Lobos H, Rodriguez H. A Case-Control Study to Identify Risk Factors for Endemic Typhoid Fever in Santiago, Chile. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 1985;63:899-904.

Edelman RE, Levine MM. Summary of an International Workshop on Typhoid Fever. Rev. Infect. Dis. 1986;8:329-349.

Maher K, Morris JG Jr, Gotuzzo E, Benavente L, Black RE, Ward LR, Levine MM. Molecular techniques in the study of Salmonella typhi in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas: comparison with Vi phage typing. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1986;35:831-835.

Tacket CO, Ferreccio C, Robbins JB, Tsai-C-M, Schulz D, Cadoz M, Goudeau A, Levine MM. Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Salmonella typhi Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 1986;154:342-345.

Levine MM, Herrington D, Murphy JR, Morris JG, Losonsky G, Tall B, Lindberg A, Svenson S, Baqar S, Edwards MF, Stocker B. Safety, Infectivity, Immunogenicity and In Vivo Stability of Two Attenuated Auxotrophic Mutant Strains of Salmonella typhi, 541Ty and 543Ty, as Live Oral Vaccines in Man. J. Clin. Invest. 1987;79:888-902.

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, Chilean Typhoid Committee, Germanier R. Large-scale field trial of Ty21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsule formulation. Lancet 1987;8541:1049-1052.

Losonsky GA, Ferreccio C, Kotloff KL, Kaintuck S, Robbins JB, Levine MM. Development and evaluation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for Vi antibodies in the detection of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1987;25:2266-2269.

Gotuzzo E, Morris JG,Jr, Benavente L, Wood PK, Levine O, Black RE, Levine MM. Association between specific plasmids and relapse in typhoid fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1987;25:1779-1781.

Murphy JR, Baqar S, Munoz C, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Lindberg AA, Svenson S, Losonsky G, Koster F, Levine MM. Characteristics of humoral and cellular immunity to Salmonella typhi in residents of typhoid-Endemic and typhoid-Free regions. J. Infect. Dis. 1987;156:1005-1009.

Ferreccio, C, Morris, JG, Valdivieso, C, Prenzel, I, Sotomayor, V, Drusano, GL, Levine, MM Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic typhoid carriers. J. Infect. Dis. 1988;157:1235-9.

Tacket CO, Levine MM, Robbins JB. Persistence of antibody titers three years after vaccination with Vi polysaccharide against typhoid fever. Vaccine 1988;6:307-308.

Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Rodriguez H, Contreras R, Chilean Typhoid Committee. Comparative efficacy of two, three, or four doses of Ty21A live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsules: a field trial in an endemic area. J Inf Dis 1989;159:766-769.

Murphy JR, Wasserman SS, Baqar S, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Lindberg AA, Levine MM. Immunity to Salmonella typhi: considerations relevant to measurement of cellular immunity in typhoid-endemic regions. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1989;75:228-233.

Tacket CO, Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella. Epi. Rev. 1989;11:99-108.

Schwalbe RS, Hoge CW, Morris JG, O'Hanlon PN, Crawford RA, Gilligan PH. In vivo selection for transmissible drug resistance in Salmonella typhi during antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1990;34:161-3.

Black, RE, Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Clements ML, Lanata C, Rooney J, Germanier R, Chilean Typhoid Committee. Efficacy of one or two doses of Ty21a Salmonella typhi vaccine in enteric-coated capsules in a controlled field trial. Vaccine 1990;8:81-4.

Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Solari V, Misraji A, Astroza EL, Berrios G, Pefaur C. Detección de portadores crónicos de S. typhi: método práctico aplicado a manipuladores de alimentos del centro de Santiago. Revista Médica de Chile 1990;118:33-37.

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Cryz S, Ortiz E. Comparison of enteric-coated capsules and liquid formulation of Ty21a typhoid vaccine in a randomized controlled field trial. Lancet 1990;335:891-894.

Schwalbe RS, Hoge CW, Morris JG, O'Hanlon PN, Crawford RA, Gilligan PH. In vivo selection for transmissible drug resistance in Salmonella typhi during antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1990;34:161-3.

Hone DM, Harris AM, Chatfield S, Dougan G, Levine MM. Construction of genetically-defined double aro mutants of Salmonella typhi. Vaccine 1991;9:810-816.

Levine MM, Hone D, Tacket C, Ferreccio C, Cryz S. Clinical and field trials with attenuated Salmonella typhi as live oral vaccines and as carrier vaccines. Res. Microbiol. 1990;141:807-816.

Murphy JR, Grez L, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Baqar S, Muñoz C, Wasserman SS, Losonsky G, Olson JG, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi for young children. Infection and Immunity 1991;59:4291-4293.

Tacket, CO, Losonsky, G, Taylor DN, Baron LS, Kopecko D, Cryz S, Levine MM. Lack of immune response to the Vi component of a Vi-positive variant of the Salmonella typhi live oral vaccine strain Ty21a in volunteer studies. J. Infect. Dis. 1991;163:901-904.

Chatfield SN, Fairweather N, Charles I, Pickard D, Levine MM, Hone D, Posada M, Strugnell RA, Dougan G. Construction of a genetically defined Salmonella typhi Ty2 aroA, aroC mutant for the engineering of a candidate oral typhoid-tentanus vaccine. Vaccine 1992;10:53-60.

Finch MJ, Franco A, Gotuzzo E, Carrillo C, Benavente L, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Morris JG. Plasmids in Salmonella typhi, Lima, Peru, 1987-1988: Epidemiology, and lack of association with severity of illness or clinical complications. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 1992;47:390-396.

Franco A, Gonzalez C, Levine OS, Lagos R, Hall RH, Hoffman SL, Moechtar MA, Gotuzzo E, Levine MM, Hone DM, Morris JG. Further consideration of the clonal nature of Salmonella typhi: evaluation of molecular and clinical characteristics of strains from Indonesia and Peru. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:2187-2190.

Hone DM, Tacket CO, Harris A, Kay B, Losonsky G, Levine MM. Evaluation of a double aro mutant of Salmonella typhi ISP1820 in volunteers and in U937 human macrophage-like cells. J Clin Invest 1992;90:412-420.

Olanratmanee T, Levine MM, Losonsky GA, Thisyakorn U, Cryz SJ Jr. Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi ty21a liquid formulation vaccine in 4- to 6-year-old Thai children. J. Infect. Dis. 1992;166:451-452.

Tacket CO, Hone DM, Curtiss R III, Kelly SM, Losonsky G, Guers L, Harris AM, Edelman R, Levine MM. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of )aroC )aroD and )cya )crp Salmonella typhi strains in adult volunteers. Infect Immun 1992;60:536-541.

Tacket CO, Hone DM, Losonsky GA, Guers L, Edelman R, Levine MM. Clinical acceptability of CVD 908 Salmonella typhi vaccine strain. Vaccine 1992;10:443-446.

Pongsuk S, Sarosombath S, Ekpo P, Tangtherawattana, Levine MM. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Vi polysaccharide antigen of Salmonella typhi. Asian Pacific J Allergy and Immunology 11:53-56, 1993.

Cryz SJ Jr, Vanprapar N, Thisyakorn U, Olanratamanee T, Losonsky G, Levine MM, Chearskul S. Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine in young children. Infect Immun 61:1149-115, 1993.

Gonzalez C, Hone D, Noriega F, Tacket C, Davis JR, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Hoffman SL, Malik A, Nardin E, Sztein M, Levine MM. Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908 expressing the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum: Strain construction, safety, and immunogenicity in humans. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1994, 169: 927-931.

Hone DM, Harris AM, Levine MM. Adaptive acid tolerance response by Salmonella typhi and candidate live oral typhoid vaccine strains. Vaccine 12:895-898, 1994.

Hone DM, Harris AM, Lim V, Levine MM. Construction and characterization of isogenic O-antigen variants of Salmonella typhi. Molec Microbiol 13:525-530, 1994.

Pickard D, Li J, Roberts M, Maskell D, Hone D, Levine M, Dougan G, Chatfield S. Characterization of defined ompR mutants of Salmonella typhi: ompR is involved in the regulation of Vi polysaccharide expression. Infect Immun 62:3984-3993, 1994.

Sztein MB, Wasserman SW, Tacket CO, Edelman R, Hone D, Lindberg AA, Levine MM. Cytokine production patterns and lymphoproliferative responses in volunteers orally immunized with attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella typhi. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1994, 170, 1508-1517.

Gómez-Duarte, OG, Galen J, Chatfield SN, Rappuoli R, Eidels L, Levine MM. Expression of fragment C of tetanus toxin fused to a carboxyl-terminal fragment of diphtheria toxin in Salmonella typhi CVD 908 vaccine strain. Vaccine 13:1596-1602, 1995.

Sztein MB, Tanner MK, Polotsky Y, Orenstein JM, Levine MM. Cytotoxic lymphocytes after oral immunization with attenuated strains of Salmonella typhi in humans. J Immunol 155:3987-3993, 1995.

Levine MM, Galen J, Barry E, Noriega F, Chatfield S, Sztein M, Dougan G, Tacket C. Attenuated Salmonella as live oral vaccines against typhoid fever and as live vectors. J. Biotechnol 1996;44:193-196.

Tacket CO, Sztein MB, Losonsky GA, Wasserman SS, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Pickard D, Dougan G, Chatfield SN, Levine MM. Safety of live oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strains with deletions in htrA and aroC aroD and immune response in humans. Infect. Immun. 1997;65:452-456.

Pang T, Levine MM, Ivanoff B, Wain J, Finlay BB. Typhoid fever--important issues still remain. Trends Microbiol. 1998;6:131-3.

Clemens J, Hoffman S, Ivanoff B, Klugman K, Levine MM, Neira M, Pang T. Typhoid fever vaccines. Vaccine. 1999;17:2476-8.

Galen JE, Nair J, Wang JY, Wasserman SS, Tanner MK, Sztein MB, Levine MM. Optimization of plasmid maintenance in the attenuated live vector vaccine strain Salmonella typhi CVD 908-htrA. Infect. Immun. 1999;67:6424-33.

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Abrego P, Martin OS, Ortiz E, Cryz S. Duration of efficacy of Ty21a, attenuated Salmonella typhi live oral vaccine. Vaccine. 1999;Suppl 2:S22-7.

Orr N, Galen JE, Levine MM. Expression and immunogenicity of a mutant diphtheria toxin molecule, CRM(197), and its fragments in Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA. Infect. Immun. 1999;67:4290-4.

Pasetti MF, Anderson RJ, Noriega FR, Levine MM, Sztein MB. Attenuated deltaguaBA Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 as a live vector utilizing prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems to deliver foreign antigens and elicit immune responses. Clin. Immunol. 1999;92:76-89.

Wyant TL, Tanner MK, Sztein MB. Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect. Immun. 1999;67:1338-46.

Wyant TL, Tanner MK, Sztein MB. Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 1999;67:3619-24.

Pasetti MF, Pickett TE, Levine MM, Sztein MB. A comparison of immunogenicity and in vivo distribution of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Typhimurium live vector vaccines delivered by mucosal routes in the murine model. Vaccine. 2000, 18:3208-13.

Pasetti MF, Tanner MK, Pickett TE, Levine MM, Sztein M. Mechanisms and cellular events associated with the priming of mucosal and systemic immune responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi live vector vaccines delivered intranasally in the murine model. Vaccine 18:3208-13, 2000.

Pickett TE, Pasetti MF, Galen JE, Sztein MB, Levine MM. In vivo characterization of the murine intranasal model for assessing the immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains as live mucosal vaccines and as live vectors. Infect Immun. 2000, 68:205-13.

Tacket CO, Galen J, Sztein MB, Losonsky G, Wyant TL, Nataro J, Wasserman SS, Edelman R, Chatfield S, Dougan G, Levine MM. Safety and immune responses to attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi oral live vector vaccines expressing tetanus toxin fragment C Clin Immunol. 2000, 97:146-53.

Tacket CO, Sztein MB, Wasserman SS, Losonsky G, off KL, Wyant TL, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Perry J, Bedford P, Brown D, Chatfield S, Dougan G, Levine MM. Phase 2 clinical trial of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi oral live vector vaccine CVD 908-htrA in U.S. volunteers. Infect Immun. 2000, 68:1196-201.

Wang JY, Noriega FR, Galen JE, Barry E, Levine MM. Constitutive expression of the Vi polysaccharide capsular antigen in attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi oral vaccine strain CVD 909. Infect Immun. 2000, 68:4647-52.

Wang JY, Pasetti MF, Noriega FR, Anderson RJ, Wasserman SS, Galen JE, Sztein MB, Levine MM. Construction, genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and immunogenicity of attenuated guaBA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain CVD 915. Infection & Immunity. 2001, 69:4734-4741.

Pasetti MF, Salerno-Goncalves R, Sztein MB. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi live vector vaccines delivered intranasally elicit regional and systemic specific CD8+ major histocompatibility class i-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Infection & Immunity. 2002, 70:4009-4018.

Wahid R, Salerno-Gonçalves R, Tacket CO, Levine MM, Sztein MB. Cell-mediated immune responses in humans after immunization with one or two doses of oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine CVD 909. Vaccine. 2007;25:1416-1425. 

Salerno-Goncalves R, Wahid R, Sztein MB. Ex Vivo kinetics of early and long-term multifunctional human leukocyte antigen E-specific CD8+ cells in volunteers immunized with the Ty21a typhoid vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1305-1314.