Bookmark and Share

Publications Before 1999


Prado V, Pidal P, Arellano C, Lagos R, San Martin O, Levine MM. [Antimicrobial multiresistance of Shigella sp strains in a semi rural community of northern Santiago]. Rev Med Chil. 1998 Dec;126(12):1464-71. Spanish. PMID: 10349160

Lagos R, Levine OS, Avendaño A, Horwitz I, Levine MM. The introduction of routine Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Chile: a framework for evaluating new vaccines in newly industrializing countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Sep;17(9 Suppl):S139-48. PMID: 9781748

Djimde A, Plowe CV, Diop S, Dicko A, Wellems TE, Doumbo O. Use of antimalarial drugs in Mali: policy versus reality. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Sep;59(3):376-9. PMID: 9749628

Cortese JF, Plowe CV. Antifolate resistance due to new and known Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase mutations expressed in yeast. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Aug 1;94(2):205-14.PubMed [citation] PMID: 9747971

Kublin JG, Witzig RS, Shankar AH, Zurita JQ, Gilman RH, Guarda JA, Cortese JF, Plowe CV. Molecular assays for surveillance of antifolate-resistant malaria. Lancet. 1998 May 30;351(9116):1629-30. PMID: 9620719

Lagos R, Valenzuela MT, Levine OS, Losonsky GA, Erazo A, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Economisation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b: a randomised trial of immunogenicity of fractional-dose and two-dose regimens. Lancet. 1998 May 16;351(9114):1472-6. PMID: 9605803

Levine MM, Dougan G. Optimism over vaccines administered via mucosal surfaces. Lancet. 1998 May 9;351(9113):1375-6. PMID: 9593404

González CR, Noriega FR, Huerta S, Santiago A, Vega M, Paniagua J, Ortiz-Navarrete V, Isibasi A, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of a Salmonella typhi CVD 908 candidate vaccine strain expressing the major surface protein gp63 of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Vaccine. 1998 May-Jun;16(9-10):1043-52. PMID: 9682357

Hoppenbrouwers K, Lagos R, Swennen B, Ethevenaux C, Knops J, Levine MM, Desmyter J. Safety and immunogenicity of an Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) combination vaccine administered in a dual-chamber syringe to infants in Belgium and Chile. Vaccine. 1998 May-Jun;16(9-10):921-7. PMID: 9682338

Tacket CO, Mason HS, Losonsky G, Clements JD, Levine MM, Arntzen CJ. Immunogenicity in humans of a recombinant bacterial antigen delivered in a transgenic potato. Nat Med. 1998 May;4(5):607-9. PMID: 9585236

Sack DA, Tacket CO, Cohen MB, Sack RB, Losonsky GA, Shimko J, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Levine MM, Giannella RA, Schiff G, Lang D. Validation of a volunteer model of cholera with frozen bacteria as the challenge.Infect Immun. 1998 May;66(5):1968-72. PMID: 9573077, PMCID: PMC108151

Kotloff KL, Wasserman SS, Russ K, Shapiro S, Daniel R, Brown W, Frost A, Tabara SO, Shah K. Detection of genital human papillomavirus and associated cytological abnormalities among college women. Sex Transm Dis. 1998 May;25(5):243-50. PMID: 9587175

Pang T, Levine MM, Ivanoff B, Wain J, Finlay BB. Typhoid fever--important issues still remain. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Apr;6(4):131-3. PMID: 9587187

Lagos R, Kotloff K, Hoffenbach A, San Martin O, Abrego P, Ureta AM, Pines E, Blondeau C, Bailleux F, Levine MM. Clinical acceptability and immunogenicity of a pentavalent parenteral combination vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

conjugate antigens in two-, four- and six-month-old Chilean infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Apr;17(4):294-304. PMID: 9576383

Levine MM, Lagos R, Levine OS, Heitmann I, Enriquez N, Pinto ME, Alvarez AM, Wu E, Mayorga C, Reyes A. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infections in infants and young children in Metropolitan Santiago, Chile, a newly industrializing country. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Apr;17(4):287-93. PMID: 9576382

Kierszenbaum F, Majumder S, Paredes P, Tanner MK, Sztein MB. The Trypanosoma cruzi immunosuppressive factor (TIF) targets a lymphocyte activation event subsequent to increased intracellular calcium ion concentration and translocation of protein kinase C but previous to cyclin D2 and cdk4 mRNA accumulation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Apr 1;92(1):133-45. PMID: 9574917

Tacket CO, Taylor RK, Losonsky G, Lim Y, Nataro JP, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Investigation of the roles of toxin-coregulated pili and mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pili in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae O139 infection. Infect Immun. 1998 Feb;66(2):692-5. PMID: 9453628, PMCID: PMC107958

Levine MM. Experimental challenge studies in the development of vaccines for infectious diseases. Dev Biol Stand. 1998;95:169-74. Review. PMID: 9855428

Donnenberg MS, Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Frankel G, Nataro JP, Dougan G, Levine MM. Effect of prior experimental human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection on illness following homologous and heterologous rechallenge. Infect Immun. 1998 Jan;66(1):52-8. PMID: 9423838, PMCID: PMC107857

Perry RT, Plowe CV, Koumaré B, Bougoudogo F, Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. A single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR is safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected and HIV-noninfected adults in Mali. Bull World Health Organ. 1998;76(1):63-71. PMID: 9615498, PMCID: PMC2305629

Nzila-Mounda A, Mberu EK, Sibley CH, Plowe CV, Winstanley PA, Watkins WM. Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum field isolates: correlation between pyrimethamine and chlorcycloguanil activity in vitro and point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase domain.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Jan;42(1):164-9. PMID: 9449279, PMCID: PMC105474

Plowe CV, Kublin JG, Doumbo OK. P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase mutations: epidemiology and role in clinical resistance to antifolates. Drug Resist Updat. 1998;1(6):389-96. PMID: 17092820


Plowe CV, Cortese JF, Djimde A, Nwanyanwu OC, Watkins WM, Winstanley PA, Estrada-Franco JG, Mollinedo RE, Avila JC, Cespedes JL, Carter D, Doumbo OK. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase and epidemiologic patterns of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine use and resistance. J Infect Dis. 1997 Dec;176(6):1590-6. PMID: 9395372

Watkins WM, Mberu EK, Winstanley PA, Plowe CV. The efficacy of antifolate antimalarial combinations in Africa: a predictive model based on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic analyses. Parasitol Today. 1997 Dec;13(12):459-64. PMID: 15275132

Levine MM, Levine OS. Influence of disease burden, public perception, and other factors on new vaccine development, implementation, and continued use. Lancet. 1997 Nov 8;350(9088):1386-92. Review. PMID: 9365466

Taylor DN, Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Castro O, Gutierrez J, Meza R, Nataro JP, Kaper JB, Wasserman SS, Edelman R, Levine MM, Cryz SJ. Evaluation of a bivalent (CVD 103-HgR/CVD 111) live oral cholera vaccine in adult volunteers from the United States and Peru. Infect Immun. 1997 Sep;65(9):3852-6. PMID: 9284163, PMCID: PMC175550

Tacket CO, Kelly SM, Schödel F, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Levine MM, Curtiss R 3rd. Safety and immunogenicity in humans of an attenuated Salmonella typhi vaccine vector strain expressing plasmid-encoded hepatitis B antigens stabilized by the Asd-balanced lethal vector system. Infect Immun. 1997

Aug;65(8):3381-5. Erratum in: Infect Immun 1997 Sep;65(9):3981. PMID: 9234801, PMCID: PMC175478

Losonsky GA, Lim Y, Motamedi P, Comstock LE, Johnson JA, Morris JG Jr, Tacket CO, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Vibriocidal antibody responses in North American volunteers exposed to wild-type or vaccine Vibrio cholerae O139: specificity and relevance to immunity. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997 May;4(3):264-9. PMID: 9144361, PMCID: PMC170516

Tacket CO, Kotloff KL, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Michalski J, Kaper JB, Edelman R, Levine MM. Volunteer studies investigating the safety and efficacy of live oral El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 111. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 May;56(5):533-7. PMID: 9180604

Fasano A, Noriega FR, Liao FM, Wang W, Levine MM. Effect of shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1) on rabbit intestine in vitro and in vivo. Gut. 1997 Apr;40(4):505-11. PMID: 9176079, PMCID: PMC1027126

Galen JE, Gomez-Duarte OG, Losonsky GA, Halpern JL, Lauderbaugh CS, Kaintuck S, Reymann MK, Levine MM. A murine model of intranasal immunization to assess the immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella typhi live vector vaccines in stimulating serum antibody responses to expressed foreign antigens. Vaccine. 1997

Apr-May;15(6-7):700-8. PMID: 9178472

Prado V, Martínez J, Arellano C, Levine MM. [Temporal variation of genotypes and serotypes of enterohemorrhagic E Coli isolated from Chilean children with intestinal infections or hemolytic uremic syndrome]. Rev Med Chil. 1997 Mar;125(3):291-7. Spanish. PMID: 9460265

Viscidi RP, Kotloff KL, Clayman B, Russ K, Shapiro S, Shah KV. Prevalence of antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in relation to cervical HPV infection among college women. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997 Mar;4(2):122-6. PMID: 9067643, PMCID: PMC170489

Levine MM, Galen J, Barry E, Noriega F, Tacket C, Sztein M, Chatfield S, Dougan G, Losonsky G, Kotloff K. Attenuated Salmonella typhi and Shigella as live oral vaccines and as live vectors. Behring Inst Mitt. 1997 Feb;(98):120-3. Review. PMID: 9382732

Levine OS, Granoff DM, Lagos R, Fritzell B, Levine MM. Factors associated with superior antibody responses to a single dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine administered to Chilean infants at 2 months of age. Vaccine. 1997 Feb;15(3):325-8. PMID: 9139494

Cookson ST, Stamboulian D, Demonte J, Quero L, Martinez de Arquiza C, Aleman A, Lepetic A, Levine MM. A cost-benefit analysis of programmatic use of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in a high-risk population. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb;26(1):212-9. PMID: 9126522

Tacket CO, Sztein MB, Losonsky GA, Wasserman SS, Nataro JP, Edelman R, Pickard D, Dougan G, Chatfield SN, Levine MM. Safety of live oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strains with deletions in htrA and aroC aroD and immune response in humans. Infect Immun. 1997 Feb;65(2):452-6. PMID: 9009296, PMCID: PMC174616

Levine MM. Oral vaccines against cholera: lessons from Vietnam and elsewhere. Lancet. 1997 Jan 25;349(9047):220-1. PMID: 9014902


Levine OS, Lagos R, Losonsky GA, San Martin O, Abrego P, Bustamante C, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. No adverse impact on protection against pertussis from combined administration of Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate and diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccines in the same syringe. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec;174(6):1341-4. PMID: 8940230

Morris JG Jr, Sztein MB, Rice EW, Nataro JP, Losonsky GA, Panigrahi P, Tacket CO, Johnson JA. Vibrio cholerae O1 can assume a chlorine-resistant rugose survival form that is virulent for humans. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec;174(6):1364-8. PMID: 8940236

Iyengar S, Shah KV, Kotloff KL, Ghim SJ, Viscidi RP. Self-assembly of in vitro-translated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsid protein into virus-like particles and antigenic reactivity of the protein. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Nov;3(6):733-9. PMID: 8914767, PMCID: PMC170439

Kotloff KL, Noriega F, Losonsky GA, Sztein MB, Wasserman SS, Nataro JP, Levine MM. Safety, immunogenicity, and transmissibility in humans of CVD 1203, a live oral Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate attenuated by deletions in aroA and virG. Infect Immun. 1996 Nov;64(11):4542-8. PMID: 8890204, PMCID:


Plowe CV, Djimde A, Wellems TE, Diop S, Kouriba B, Doumbo OK. Community pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine use and prevalence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in Mali: a model for deterring resistance. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Nov;55(5):467-71. PMID: 8940973

Franco AA, Yeh PE, Johnson JA, Barry EM, Guerra H, Maurer R, Morris JG Jr. Cloning and characterization of dnaE, encoding the catalytic subunit of replicative DNA polymerase III, from Vibrio cholerae strain C6706. Gene. 1996 Oct 10;175(1-2):281-3. PMID: 8917113

Barry EM, Gomez-Duarte O, Chatfield S, Rappuoli R, Pizza M, Losonsky G, Galen J, Levine MM. Expression and immunogenicity of pertussis toxin S1 subunit-tetanus toxin fragment C fusions in Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908. Infect Immun. 1996 Oct;64(10):4172-81. PMID: 8926085, PMCID: PMC174353

Patel CR, Judge NE, Muise KL, Levine MM. Prenatal myocardial infarction suspected by fetal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1996 Sep-Oct;9(5):721-3. PMID: 8887878

Cegielski JP, Msengi AE, Dukes CS, Levine MM. Pathogenic Escherichia coli in children with and without chronic diarrhea in Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 1996 Sep;174(3):675-7. PMID: 8769640

Noriega FR, Losonsky G, Lauderbaugh C, Liao FM, Wang JY, Levine MM. Engineered deltaguaB-A deltavirG Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1205: construction, safety, immunogenicity, and potential efficacy as a mucosal vaccine. Infect Immun. 1996 Aug;64(8):3055-61. PMID: 8757833, PMCID: PMC174187

Kierszenbaum F, Lopez HM, Sztein MB. Trypanosoma cruzi downregulates the production of interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 by activated human lymphocytes. J Parasitol. 1996 Aug;82(4):652-6. PMID: 8691380

Kotloff KL. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disorders: new approaches for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Vaccine. 1996 Aug;14(12):1174-5. PMID: 8911016

Levine MM. The legacy of Edward Jenner. BMJ. 1996 May 11;312(7040):1177-8. PMID: 8634551, PMCID: PMC2350929

Savarino SJ, McVeigh A, Watson J, Cravioto A, Molina J, Echeverria P, Bhan MK, Levine MM, Fasano A. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin is not restricted to enteroaggregative E. coli. J Infect Dis. 1996 Apr;173(4):1019-22. PMID: 8603943

Kotloff KL, Fattom A, Basham L, Hawwari A, Harkonen S, Edelman R. Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent group B streptococcal polysaccharide vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccine. 1996 Apr;14(5):446-50. PMID: 8735558

Basham LE, Pavliak V, Li X, Hawwari A, Kotloff KL, Edelman R, Fattom A. A simple, quantitative, reproducible avidin-biotin ELISA for the evaluation of group B streptococcus type-specific antibodies in humans. Vaccine. 1996 Apr;14(5):439-45. PMID: 8735557

Lagos R, Horwitz I, Toro J, San Martin O, Abrego P, Bustamante C, Wasserman SS, Levine OS, Levine MM. Large scale, postlicensure, selective vaccination of Chilean infants with PRP-T conjugate vaccine: practicality and effectiveness in preventing invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infections. Pediatr Infect Dis

J. 1996 Mar;15(3):216-22. PMID: 8852909

Darwin PE, Sztein MB, Zheng QX, James SP, Fantry GT. Immune evasion by Helicobacter pylori: gastric spiral bacteria lack surface immunoglobulin deposition and reactivity with homologous antibodies. Helicobacter. 1996

Mar;1(1):20-7. PMID: 9398909

Levine MM, Galen J, Barry E, Noriega F, Chatfield S, Sztein M, Dougan G, Tacket C. Attenuated Salmonella as live oral vaccines against typhoid fever and as live vectors.J Biotechnol. 1996 Jan 26;44(1-3):193-6. Review. PMID: 8717403

Acheson DW, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Keusch GT. Protective immunity to Shiga-like toxin I following oral immunization with Shiga-like toxin I B-subunit-producing Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR. Infect Immun. 1996 Jan;64(1):355-7. PMID: 8557364, PMCID: PMC173768

Noriega FR, Losonsky G, Wang JY, Formal SB, Levine MM. Further characterization of delta aroA delta virG Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1203 as a mucosal Shigella vaccine and as a live-vector vaccine for delivering antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1996 Jan;64(1):23-7. PMID: 8557344, PMCID: PMC173722

Losonsky GA, Yunyongying J, Lim V, Reymann M, Lim YL, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Factors influencing secondary vibriocidal immune responses: relevance for understanding immunity to cholera. Infect Immun. 1996 Jan;64(1):10-5. PMID: 8557325, PMCID: PMC173720


Levine MM, Noriega F. A review of the current status of enteric vaccines. P N G Med J. 1995 Dec;38(4):325-31. Review. PMID: 9522876

Wu S, Pascual DW, VanCott JL, McGhee JR, Maneval DR Jr, Levine MM, Hone DM. Immune responses to novel Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium vectors that express colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) of enterotoxigenic E. coli in the absence of the CFA/I positive regulator cfaR.Infect Immun. 1995 Dec;63(12):4933-8. PMID: 7591160, PMCID: PMC173709

Nataro JP, Seriwatana J, Fasano A, Maneval DR, Guers LD, Noriega F, Dubovsky F, Levine MM, Morris JG Jr. Identification and cloning of a novel plasmid-encoded enterotoxin of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. Infect Immun.1995 Dec;63(12):4721-8. PMID: 7591128, PMCID: PMC173677

Gómez-Duarte OG, Galen J, Chatfield SN, Rappuoli R, Eidels L, Levine MM. Expression of fragment C of tetanus toxin fused to a carboxyl-terminal fragment of diphtheria toxin in Salmonella typhi CVD 908 vaccine strain. Vaccine. 1995 Nov;13(16):1596-602. PMID: 8578848

Noriega FR, Liao FM, Formal SB, Fasano A, Levine MM. Prevalence of Shigella enterotoxin 1 among Shigella clinical isolates of diverse serotypes. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov;172(5):1408-10. PMID: 7594690

Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Losonsky GA, Wasserman SS, Hale TL, Taylor DN, Sadoff JC, Levine MM. A modified Shigella volunteer challenge model in which the inoculum is administered with bicarbonate buffer: clinical experience and implications for Shigella infectivity. Vaccine. 1995 Nov;13(16):1488-94. PMID: 8578831

Sztein MB, Tanner MK, Polotsky Y, Orenstein JM, Levine MM. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes after oral immunization with attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella typhi in humans. J Immunol. 1995 Oct 15;155(8):3987-93. PMID: 7561107

Girón JA, Viboud GI, Sperandio V, Gómez-Duarte OG, Maneval DR, Albert MJ, Levine MM, Kaper JB. Prevalence and association of the longus pilus structural gene (lngA) with colonization factor antigens, enterotoxin types, and serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1995 Oct;63(10):4195-8. PMID: 7558343, PMCID: PMC173594

Prado V, Basualdo W, Arellano C, Martínez J, Levine MM. [In vitro susceptibility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to 11 antimicrobials. Relationship between antibiotic resistance and toxigenic genotype]. Rev Med Chil. 1995 Sep;123(9):1085-90. Spanish. PMID: 8728731

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Comstock L, Michalski J, Edelman R, Kaper JB,Levine MM. Initial clinical studies of CVD 112 Vibrio cholerae O139 live oral vaccine: safety and efficacy against experimental challenge. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep;172(3):883-6. PMID: 7658089

Glynn JR, Hornick RB, Levine MM, Bradley DJ. Infecting dose and severity of typhoid: analysis of volunteer data and examination of the influence of the definition of illness used. Epidemiol Infect. 1995 Aug;115(1):23-30. PMID: 7641835, PMCID: PMC2271553

Ojeda A, Prado V, Martinez J, Arellano C, Borczyk A, Johnson W, Lior H, Levine MM. Sorbitol-negative phenotype among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains of different serotypes and from different sources. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Aug;33(8):2199-201. PMID: 7559979, PMCID: PMC228366

Page DA, Levine MM. Left ventricular growth in a patient with critical coarctation of the aorta and hypoplastic left ventricle. Pediatr Cardiol. 1995 Jul-Aug;16(4):176-8. PMID: 7567662

Girón JA, Xu JG, González CR, Hone D, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Simultaneous expression of CFA/I and CS3 colonization factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by delta aroC, delta aroD Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908. Vaccine. 1995 Jul;13(10):939-46. PMID: 7483768

Fasano A, Noriega FR, Maneval DR Jr, Chanasongcram S, Russell R, Guandalini S, Levine MM. Shigella enterotoxin 1: an enterotoxin of Shigella flexneri 2a active in rabbit small intestine in vivo and in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun;95(6):2853-61. PMID: 7769126, PMCID: PMC295972

Plowe CV, Djimde A, Bouare M, Doumbo O, Wellems TE. Pyrimethamine and proguanil resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase: polymerase chain reaction methods for surveillance in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Jun;52(6):565-8. PMID: 7611566

Cryz SJ Jr, Que JU, Levine MM, Wiedermann G, Kollaritsch H. Safety and immunogenicity of a live oral bivalent typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi Ty21a)-cholera (Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR) vaccine in healthy adults. Infect Immun. 1995 Apr;63(4):1336-9. PMID: 7890391, PMCID: PMC173155

Kierszenbaum F, Mejia Lopez H, Tanner MK, Sztein MB. Trypanosoma cruzi-induced decrease in the level of interferon-gamma receptor expression by resting and activated human blood lymphocytes. Parasite Immunol. 1995 Apr;17(4):207-14. PMID: 7624161

Kierszenbaum F, Majumder S, Mejia Lopez H, Sztein MB. Differential effects of Trypanosoma cruzi on the transcription of the p55IL-2R, c-fos, c-myc and CD69 genes in activated human lymphocytes. Parasite Immunol. 1995 Apr;17(4):197-205. PMID: 7624160

Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Nataro JP, Wasserman SS, Hale TL, Taylor DN, Newland JW, Sadoff JC, Formal SB, Levine MM. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in healthy adults of four doses of live oral hybrid Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain EcSf2a-2. Vaccine. 1995 Apr;13(5):495-502. PMID: 7639017

Nataro JP, Deng Y, Cookson S, Cravioto A, Savarino SJ, Guers LD, Levine MM,Tacket CO. Heterogeneity of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence demonstrated in volunteers. J Infect Dis. 1995 Feb;171(2):465-8.

PMID: 7844392

Lagos R, Avendaño A, Prado V, Horwitz I, Wasserman S, Losonsky G, Cryz S Jr, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Attenuated live cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits significantly higher serum vibriocidal antibody titers in persons of blood group O. Infect Immun. 1995 Feb;63(2):707-9. PMID: 7822046, PMCID: PMC173056

Levine MM. Non-target effects of live vaccines: myth, reality and demagoguery. Dev Biol Stand. 1995;84:33-8. Review. PMID: 7796965

Cryz SJ Jr, Kaper J, Tacket C, Nataro J, Levine MM. Vibrio cholerae CVD103-HgR live oral attenuated vaccine: construction, safety, immunogenicity, excretion and non-target effects. Dev Biol Stand. 1995;84:237-44. Review. PMID: 7796960

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Wasserman SS, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Levine MM. Extension of the volunteer challenge model to study South American cholera in a population of volunteers predominantly with blood group antigen O. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Jan-Feb;89(1):75-7. PMID: 7747315

Kaper JB, Morris JG Jr, Levine MM. Cholera. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995 Jan;8(1):48-86. Review. Erratum in: Clin Microbiol Rev 1995 Apr;8(2):316. PMID: 7704895, PMCID: PMC172849

Comstock LE, Maneval D Jr, Panigrahi P, Joseph A, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Morris JG Jr, Johnson JA. The capsule and O antigen in Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal are associated with a genetic region not present in Vibrio cholerae O1. Infect Immun. 1995 Jan;63(1):317-23. PMID: 7528734, PMCID: PMC172994

Plowe CV, Wellems TE. Molecular approaches to the spreading problem of drug resistant malaria. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;390:197-209. Review. PMID: 8718614


Sztein MB, Wasserman SS, Tacket CO, Edelman R, Hone D, Lindberg AA, Levine MM. Cytokine production patterns and lymphoproliferative responses in volunteers orally immunized with attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella typhi. J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;170(6):1508-17.  PMID: 7995991

Noriega FR, Wang JY, Losonsky G, Maneval DR, Hone DM, Levine MM. Construction and characterization of attenuated delta aroA delta virG Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1203, a prototype live oral vaccine. Infect Immun. 1994 Nov;62(11):5168-72. PMID: 7927802, PMCID: PMC303242

Medina EC, Widmalm G, Weintraub A, Vial PA, Levine MM, Lindberg AA. Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharides of Escherichia coli O3 and the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 17-2. Eur J Biochem. 1994 Aug 15;224(1):191-6. PMID: 7521299

Wasserman SS, Losonsky GA, Noriega F, Tacket CO, Castañeda E, Levine MM. Kinetics of the vibriocidal antibody response to live oral cholera vaccines. Vaccine. 1994 Aug;12(11):1000-3. PMID: 7975839

Hone DM, Harris AM, Levine MM. Adaptive acid tolerance response by Salmonella typhi and candidate live oral typhoid vaccine strains. Vaccine. 1994 Aug;12(10):895-8. PMID: 7975830

Hone DM, Harris AM, Lim V, Levine MM. Construction and characterization of isogenic O-antigen variants of Salmonella typhi. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Aug;13(3):525-30. PMID: 7527893

Kaper JB, Michalski J, Ketley JM, Levine MM. Potential for reacquisition of cholera enterotoxin genes by attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR. Infect Immun. 1994 Apr;62(4):1480-3. PMID: 8132356, PMCID: PMC186308

Girón JA, Levine MM, Kaper JB. Longus: a long pilus ultrastructure produced by human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Apr;12(1):71-82. PMID: 7914665

Gonzalez C, Hone D, Noriega FR, Tacket CO, Davis JR, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Hoffman S, Malik A, Nardin E, Sztein MB, Heppner DG, Fouts TR, Isibasi A, Levine MM, et al. Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908 expressing the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum: strain construction and safety and immunogenicity in humans. J Infect Dis. 1994 Apr;169(4):927-31. PMID: 8133113

Levine MM, Levine OS. Changes in human ecology and behavior in relation to the emergence of diarrheal diseases, including cholera. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 29;91(7):2390-4. Review. PMID: 8146128, PMCID: PMC43377

Kierszenbaum F, Lopez HM, Sztein MB.Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific immune responses by a protein produced by T. cruzi in the course of Chagas' disease. Immunology. 1994 Mar;81(3):462-7. PMID: 8206517, PMCID: PMC1422353

Kotloff KL, Johnson JP, Nair P, Hickman D, Lippincott P, Wilson PD, Clemens JD. Diarrheal morbidity during the first 2 years of life among HIV-infected infants. JAMA. 1994 Feb 9;271(6):448-52. PMID: 8295320

Curtiss R 3rd, Kelly SM, Tinge SA, Tacket CO, Levine MM, Srinivasan J, Koopman M. Recombinant Salmonella vectors in vaccine development. Dev Biol Stand. 1994;82:23-33. Review. PMID: 7958478

Ivanoff B, Levine MM, Lambert PH. Vaccination against typhoid fever: present status. Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72(6):957-71. Review.  PMID: 7867143, PMCID: PMC2486740


Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Fasano A, Michalski J, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine candidate CVD 110, a delta ctxA delta zot delta ace derivative of El Tor Ogawa Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;168(6):1536-40. PMID: 8245542

Levine MM, Noriega F. Vaccines to prevent bacterial enteric infections in children. Pediatr Ann. 1993 Dec;22(12):719-25. Review. PMID: 8139873

Wasserman SS, Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Levine MM. Immunologic response to oral cholera vaccination in a crossover study: a novel placebo effect. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec 1;138(11):988-93. PMID: 8256784

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Prado V, Cayazzo M, Abrego P, Martinez J, Maggi L, Baldini MM, Martin W, Maneval D, et al. Epidemiologic studies of Escherichia coli diarrheal infections in a low socioeconomic level peri-urban community in Santiago, Chile. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Nov 15;138(10):849-69. PMID: 8237973

Kierszenbaum F, Mejia Lopez H, Sztein MB. Does interleukin-2 restore lymphocyte responses suppressed by Trypanosoma cruzi? Immunology. 1993 Nov;80(3):445-50. PMID: 8288318, PMCID: PMC1422229

Sztein MB, Kierszenbaum F. Mechanisms of development of immunosuppression during Trypanosoma infections. Parasitol Today. 1993 Nov;9(11):424-8. PMID: 15463685

Edelman R, Hoffman SL, Davis JR, Beier M, Sztein MB, Losonsky G, Herrington DA, Eddy HA, Hollingdale MR, Gordon DM, et al. Long-term persistence of sterile immunity in a volunteer immunized with X-irradiated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. J Infect Dis. 1993 Oct;168(4):1066-70. PMID: 8376823

Michalski J, Galen JE, Fasano A, Kaper JB. CVD110, an attenuated Vibrio cholera O1 El Tor live oral vaccine strain. Infect Immun. 1993 Oct;61(10):4462-8. PMID: 8406837, PMCID: PMC281180

Donnenberg MS, Tacket CO, James SP, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Wasserman SS, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Role of the eaeA gene in experimental enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection. J Clin Invest. 1993 Sep;92(3):1412-7. PMID: 8376594, PMCID: PMC288285

Mahle WT, Levine MM. Salmonella typhi infection in children younger than five years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993 Aug;12(8):627-31. Review. PMID: 8414773

Ketley JM, Michalski J, Galen J, Levine MM, Kaper JB. Construction of genetically marked Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Jul 15;111(1):15-21. Erratum in: FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998 Jun 15;163(2):269. PMID: 8359676

Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Relationship between humoral immune responses and oral temperature during human shigellosis. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;167(6):1449-52. PMID: 8501337

Levine MM, Noriega F. Vaccines to prevent enteric infections. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1993 Jun;7(2):501-17. Review. PMID: 8364252

Pongsunk S, Sarasombath S, Ekpo P, Tangtherawattana P, Levine MM. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Vi polysaccharide antigen of Salmonella typhi. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1993 Jun;11(1):53-6. PMID: 8216560

Trucksis M, Galen JE, Michalski J, Fasano A, Kaper JB. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jun 1;90(11):5267-71. PMID: 8389476,


Lopez HM, Tanner MK, Kierszenbaum F, Sztein MB. Alterations induced by Trypanosoma cruzi in activated mouse lymphocytes. Parasite Immunol. 1993 May;15(5):273-80. PMID: 8332383

Weintraub A, Leontein K, Widmalm G, Vial PA, Levine MM, Lindberg AA. Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharide of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Apr 15;213(2):859-64. PMID: 7682949

Wolf MK, Taylor DN, Boedeker EC, Hyams KC, Maneval DR, Levine MM, Tamura K, Wilson RA, Echeverria P. Characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from U.S. troops deployed to the Middle East. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Apr;31(4):851-6. PMID: 8463396, PMCID: PMC263576

Savarino SJ, Fasano A, Watson J, Martin BM, Levine MM, Guandalini S, Guerry P. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 represents another subfamily of E. coli heat-stable toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 1;90(7):3093-7. PMID: 8385356, PMCID: PMC46243

Cryz SJ Jr, Vanprapar N, Thisyakorn U, Olanratmanee T, Losonsky G, Levine MM, Chearskul S. Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine in young Thai children. Infect Immun. 1993 Mar;61(3):1149-51. PMID: 8432597, PMCID: PMC302854

Cohen MB, Hawkins JA, Weckbach LS, Staneck JL, Levine MM, Heck JE. Colonization by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in travelers with and without diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb;31(2):351-3. PMID: 8432822, PMCID: PMC262763

Losonsky GA, Tacket CO, Wasserman SS, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Secondary Vibrio cholerae-specific cellular antibody responses following wild-type homologous challenge in people vaccinated with CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine: changes with time and lack of correlation with protection. Infect Immun. 1993 Feb;61(2):729-33. PMID: 8423098, PMCID: PMC302786

Levine MM, Kaper JB. Live oral vaccines against cholera: an update. Vaccine. 1993;11(2):207-12. Review. PMID: 8438619

Edelman R, Russell RG, Losonsky G, Tall BD, Tacket CO, Levine MM, Lewis DH. Immunization of rabbits with enterotoxigenic E. coli colonization factor antigen (CFA/I) encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres of poly

(lactide-co-glycolide). Vaccine. 1993;11(2):155-8. PMID: 8094929

Kierszenbaum F, Moretti E, Sztein MB. Molecular basis of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced immunosuppression. Altered expression by activated human lymphocytes of molecules which regulate antigen recognition and progression through the cell cycle. Biol Res. 1993;26(1-2):197-207. PMID: 7670532


Tzipori S, Montanaro J, Robins-Browne RM, Vial P, Gibson R, Levine MM. Studies with enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in the gnotobiotic piglet gastroenteritis model. Infect Immun. 1992 Dec;60(12):5302-6. PMID: 1452364, PMCID: PMC258311

Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. An analysis of the quantitative relationship between oral temperature and severity of illness in experimental shigellosis. J Infect Dis. 1992 Nov;166(5):1181-4. PMID: 1402032

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Onset and duration of protective immunity in challenged volunteers after vaccination with live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct;166(4):837-41.PMID: 1527420

Sztein MB, Kierszenbaum F.Suppression by Trypanosoma cruzi of T-cell receptor expression by activated human lymphocytes. Immunology. 1992 Oct;77(2):277-83. PMID: 1427979, PMCID: PMC1421637

Kotloff KL, Wasserman SS, O'Donnell S, Losonsky GA, Cryz SJ, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity in North Americans of a single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct;60(10):4430-2. PMID: 1398956, PMCID: PMC257485

Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. A critical appraisal of 98.6 degrees F, the upper limit of the normal body temperature, and other legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. JAMA. 1992 Sep 23-30;268(12):1578-80. PMID: 1302471

Finch MJ, Franco A, Gotuzzo E, Carrillo C, Benavente L, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Morris JG Jr. Plasmids in Salmonella typhi in Lima, Peru, 1987-1988: epidemiology and lack of association with severity of illness or clinical complications. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Sep;47(3):390-6. PMID: 1524153

Cryz SJ Jr, Levine MM, Losonsky G, Kaper JB, Althaus B. Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in Swiss adults. Infect Immun. 1992 Sep;60(9):3916-7. PMID: 1500200, PMCID: PMC257409

Hone DM, Tacket CO, Harris AM, Kay B, Losonsky G, Levine MM. Evaluation in volunteers of a candidate live oral attenuated Salmonella typhi vector vaccine. J Clin Invest. 1992 Aug;90(2):412-20. PMID: 1644914, PMCID: PMC443116

Morris JG Jr, Tacket CO, Levine MM. Oral carrier vaccines: new tricks in an old trade. Gastroenterology. 1992 Aug;103(2):699-702. PMID: 1634086

Franco A, Gonzalez C, Levine OS, Lagos R, Hall RH, Hoffman SL, Moechtar MA, Gotuzzo E, Levine MM, Hone DM, et al. Further consideration of the clonal nature of Salmonella typhi: evaluation of molecular and clinical characteristics of strains from Indonesia and Peru. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Aug;30(8):2187-90. PMID: 1500532, PMCID: PMC265469

Cordovéz A, Prado V, Maggi L, Cordero J, Martinez J, Misraji A, Rios R, Soza G, Ojeda A, Levine MM. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Chilean children. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Aug;30(8):2153-7. PMID: 1500525, PMCID: PMC265461

Harpaz R, Edelman R, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Davis JR, Sztein MB. Serum cytokine profiles in experimental human malaria. Relationship to protection and disease course after challenge.J Clin Invest. 1992 Aug;90(2):515-23. PMID: 1644922, PMCID: PMC443129

Levine MM, McEwen J, Losonsky G, Reymann M, Harari I, Brown JE, Taylor DN, Donohue-Rolfe A, Cohen D, Bennish M, et al. Antibodies to shiga holotoxin and to two synthetic peptides of the B subunit in sera of patients with Shigella dysenteriae 1 dysentery. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Jul;30(7):1636-41. PMID: 1629317, PMCID: PMC265356

Van de Verg LL, Herrington DA, Boslego J, Lindberg AA, Levine MM. Age-specific prevalence of serum antibodies to the invasion plasmid and lipopolysaccharide antigens of Shigella species in Chilean and North American populations. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jul;166(1):158-61. PMID: 1607690

Kotloff KL, Herrmann JE, Blacklow NR, Hudson RW, Wasserman SS, Morris JG Jr, Levine MM. The frequency of astrovirus as a cause of diarrhea in Baltimore children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1992 Jul;11(7):587-9. PMID: 1528651

Nataro JP, Deng Y, Maneval DR, German AL, Martin WC, Levine MM. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli mediate adherence to HEp-2 cells and hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun;60(6):2297-304. PMID: 1350273, PMCID: PMC257157

Kotloff KL, Herrington DA, Hale TL, Newland JW, Van De Verg L, Cogan JP, Snoy PJ, Sadoff JC, Formal SB, Levine MM. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in monkeys and humans of invasive Escherichia coli K-12 hybrid vaccine candidates expressing Shigella flexneri 2a somatic antigen. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun;60(6):2218-24. PMID: 1587589, PMCID: PMC257146

Davis JR, Cortese JF, Herrington DA, Murphy JR, Clyde DF, Thomas AW, Baqar S, Cochran MA, Thanassi J, Levine MM. Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro characterization and human infectivity of a cloned line. Exp Parasitol. 1992 Mar;74(2):159-68. PMID: 1346766

Kierszenbaum F, Sztein MB. Trypanosoma cruzi suppresses the expression of the p75 chain of interleukin-2 receptors on the surface of activated helper and cytotoxic human lymphocytes. Immunology. 1992 Mar;75(3):546-9. PMID: 1533390, PMCID: PMC1384753

Brown AE, Herrington DA, Webster HK, Clyde DF, Sztein MB, Davis JR, Beier MS, Edelman R. Urinary neopterin in volunteers experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Mar-Apr;86(2):134-6. PMID: 1440769

Clemens JD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Horwitz I, Rao MR, Edwards KM, Fritzell B. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine on responses to concurrently administered

diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. JAMA. 1992 Feb 5;267(5):673-8. PMID: 1731134

Tacket CO, Hone DM, Curtiss R 3rd, Kelly SM, Losonsky G, Guers L, Harris AM, Edelman R, Levine MM. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of delta aroC delta aroD and delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhi strains in adult volunteers. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):536-41. PMID: 1730487, PMCID: PMC257661

Galen JE, Ketley JM, Fasano A, Richardson SH, Wasserman SS, Kaper JB. Role of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase in the function of cholera toxin. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):406-15. PMID: 1730470, PMCID: PMC257643

Echeverria P, Serichantalerg O, Changchawalit S, Baudry B, Levine MM, Orskov F, Orskov I. Tissue culture-adherent Escherichia coli in infantile diarrhea. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jan;165(1):141-3. PMID: 1727883

Tacket CO, Hone DM, Losonsky GA, Guers L, Edelman R, Levine MM. Clinical acceptability and immunogenicity of CVD 908 Salmonella typhi vaccine strain. Vaccine. 1992;10(7):443-6. PMID: 1609547

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Lubeck MD, Davis AR, Mizutani S, Horwith G, Hung P, Edelman R, Levine MM. Initial safety and immunogenicity studies of an oral recombinant adenohepatitis B vaccine. Vaccine. 1992;10(10):673-6. PMID: 1523878

Herrington DA, Losonsky GA, Smith G, Volvovitz F, Cochran M, Jackson K, Hoffman SL, Gordon DM, Levine MM, Edelman R. Safety and immunogenicity in volunteers of a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein malaria vaccine produced in Lepidopteran cells. Vaccine. 1992;10(12):841-6. PMID: 1455910


Lagos R, Avendano A, Horwitz I, Musser JM, Hoiseth SK, Maneval DR Jr, Jones MJ, Levine MM, Dattas JP, Prenzel I, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae within families in Santiago, Chile. J Infect Dis. 1991 Dec;164(6):1149-53. PMID: 1955714

Herrington DA, Nardin EH, Losonsky G, Bathurst IC, Barr PJ, Hollingdale MR, Edelman R, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant sporozoite malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 Dec;45(6):695-701. PMID: 1763796

Morris JG Jr, Prado V, Ferreccio C, Robins-Browne RM, Bordun AM, Cayazzo M, Kay BA, Levine MM. Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from two cohorts of young children in Santiago, Chile: incidence of and lack of correlation between illness and proposed virulence factors. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2784-8. PMID: 1757549, PMCID: PMC270433

Merritt WD, Sztein MB, Taylor B, Reaman GH. Immunoreactivity of leukemic lymphoblasts of T-cell and B-cell precursor origin with monoclonal anti-GD3 and anti-GM3 antibodies.Leukemia. 1991 Dec;5(12):1087-91. PMID: 1774957

Murphy JR, Grez L, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Baqar S, Muñoz C, Wasserman SS, Losonsky G, Olson JG, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine for young children. Infect Immun. 1991 Nov;59(11):4291-3. PMID:1937790, PMCID: PMC259034

Hone DM, Harris AM, Chatfield S, Dougan G, Levine MM.Construction of genetically defined double aro mutants of Salmonella typhi.Vaccine. 1991 Nov;9(11):810-6. PMID: 1759503

Kierszenbaum F, Muthukkumar S, Beltz LA, Sztein MB.Suppression by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense of the capacities of human T lymphocytes to express interleukin-2 receptors and proliferate after mitogenic stimulation.Infect Immun. 1991 Oct;59(10):3518-22. PMID: 1894358, PMCID: PMC258915

Kierszenbaum F, Moretti E, Sztein MB.Trypanosoma cruzi induces suppression of DNA synthesis and inhibits expression of interleukin-2 receptors by stimulated human B lymphocytes.Immunology. 1991 Oct;74(2):317-22. PMID: 1748480, PMCID: PMC1384611

Kotloff KL, Tacket CO, Wasserman SS, Bridwell MW, Cowan JE, Clemens JD, Brothers TA, O'Donnell SA, Quinn TC. A voluntary serosurvey and behavioral risk assessment for human immunodeficiency virus infection among college students. Sex Transm Dis. 1991 Oct-Dec;18(4):223-7. PMID: 1771475

Ferreccio C, Prado V, Ojeda A, Cayyazo M, Abrego P, Guers L, Levine MM. Epidemiologic patterns of acute diarrhea and endemic Shigella infections in children in a poor periurban setting in Santiago, Chile. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Sep 15;134(6):614-27. PMID: 1951266

Levine OS, Levine MM.Houseflies (Musca domestica) as mechanical vectors of shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Jul-Aug;13(4):688-96. Review. PMID: 1925289

Hall RH, Losonsky G, Silveira AP, Taylor RK, Mekalanos JJ, Witham ND, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of Vibrio cholerae O1 toxin-coregulated pili in experimental and clinical cholera. Infect Immun. 1991 Jul;59(7):2508-12. PMID: 1711017, PMCID: PMC258041

Sztein MB, Kierszenbaum F. A soluble factor from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense that prevents progression of activated human T lymphocytes through the cell cycle. Immunology. 1991 Jun;73(2):180-5. PMID: 2071163, PMCID: PMC1384462

Sztein MB, Kierszenbaum F.Trypanosoma cruzi suppresses the ability of activated human lymphocytes to enter the cell cycle. J Parasitol. 1991 Jun;77(3):502-5. PMID: 2040966

Shapiro SJ, Kotloff KL.Prevention of risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among college students. Nurse Pract Forum. 1991 Jun;2(2):87-90. PMID: 1840956

Cohen D, Green M, Block C, Slepon R, Ambar R, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Reduction of transmission of shigellosis by control of houseflies (Musca domestica) Lancet. 1991 Apr 27;337(8748):993-7. PMID: 1673210

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Taylor DN, Baron LS, Kopecko D, Cryz S, Levine MM. Lack of  immune response to the Vi component of a Vi-positive variant of the Salmonella typhi live oral vaccine strain Ty21a in human studies. J Infect Dis. 1991 Apr;163(4):901-4. PMID: 2010645

Savarino SJ, Fasano A, Robertson DC, Levine MM. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli elaborate a heat-stable enterotoxin demonstrable in an in vitro rabbit intestinal model. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr;87(4):1450-5. PMID: 2010554, PMCID: PMC295194

Levine MM. Vaccines and milk immunoglobulin concentrates for prevention of infectious diarrhea. J Pediatr. 1991 Apr;118(4 Pt 2):S129-36. Review. PMID: 1848888

Edelman R, Levine MM. Enteric vaccines. Md Med J. 1991 Mar;40(3):199-203. Review. PMID: 2008164

Saltzberg DM, Kotloff KL, Newman JL, Fastiggi R. Cryptosporidium infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: not always a poor prognosis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Feb;13(1):94-7. PMID: 2007756

Kotloff KL, Tacket CO, Clemens JD, Wasserman SS, Cowan JE, Bridwell MW, Quinn TC. Assessment of the prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among college students using three survey methods. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Jan;133(1):2-8. PMID: 1983894


Cryz SJ Jr, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Fürer E, Althaus B. Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the live oral cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR in Swiss adults. Vaccine. 1990 Dec;8(6):577-80. PMID: 2087879

Jerse AE, Martin WC, Galen JE, Kaper JB. Oligonucleotide probe for detection of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) adherence factor of localized adherent EPEC. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Dec;28(12):2842-4. PMID: 1980682, PMCID: PMC268291

Gicquelais KG, Baldini MM, Martinez J, Maggi L, Martin WC, Prado V, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Practical and economical method for using biotinylated DNA probes with bacterial colony blots to identify diarrhea-causing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Nov;28(11):2485-90. PMID: 2254425, PMCID: PMC268211

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Cryz S, Ortiz E. Comparison of enteric-coated capsules and liquid formulation of Ty21a typhoid vaccine in randomised controlled field trial. Lancet. 1990 Oct 13;336(8720):891-4. PMID: 1976928

Persutte WH, Yeasting RA, Lenke RR, Levine MM. Prenatal ultrasonographic appearance of "agenesis" of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonic valve hypoplasia. A case report and review of the embryogenesis. J Ultrasound Med. 1990 Sep;9(9):541-5. PMID: 2214014

Kaper JB, Levine MM. Recombinant attenuated Vibrio cholerae strains used as live oral vaccines. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct;141(7-8):901-6. PMID: 2101480

Levine MM, Hone D, Tacket C, Ferreccio C, Cryz S. Clinical and field trials with attenuated Salmonella typhi as live oral vaccines and as "carrier" vaccines. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct;141(7-8):807-16. Review. PMID: 2101470

Herrington DA, Van de Verg L, Formal SB, Hale TL, Tall BD, Cryz SJ, Tramont EC, Levine MM. Studies in volunteers to evaluate candidate Shigella vaccines: further experience with a bivalent Salmonella typhi-Shigella sonnei vaccine and protection conferred by previous Shigella sonnei disease. Vaccine. 1990

Aug;8(4):353-7. PMID: 2204243

Tacket CO, Moseley SL, Kay B, Losonsky G, Levine MM. Challenge studies in volunteers using Escherichia coli strains with diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells. J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug;162(2):550-2.PubMed [citation] PMID: 2197345

Kierszenbaum F, Sztein MB. Mechanisms underlying immunosuppression induced by Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitol Today. 1990 Aug;6(8):261-4. PMID: 15463358

Ferreccio C, Ortiz E, Astroza L, Rivera C, Clemens J, Levine MM. A population-based retrospective assessment of the disease burden resulting from invasive Haemophilus influenzae in infants and young children in Santiago, Chile. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Jul;9(7):488-94. PMID: 2371082

Nash TE, Herrington DA, Levine MM, Conrad JT, Merritt JW Jr. Antigenic variation of Giardia lamblia in experimental human infections. J Immunol. 1990 Jun 1;144(11):4362-9. PMID: 2341723

Baudry B, Savarino SJ, Vial P, Kaper JB, Levine MM. A sensitive and specific DNA probe to identify enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, a recently discovered diarrheal pathogen. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1249-51. PMID: 2189007

Van de Verg L, Herrington DA, Murphy JR, Wasserman SS, Formal SB, Levine MM. Specific immunoglobulin A-secreting cells in peripheral blood of humans following oral immunization with a bivalent Salmonella typhi-Shigella sonnei vaccine or infection by pathogenic S. sonnei. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):2002-4. PMID: 1692813, PMCID: PMC258758

Tacket CO, Forrest B, Morona R, Attridge SR, LaBrooy J, Tall BD, Reymann M, Rowley D, Levine MM. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against cholera challenge in humans of a typhoid-cholera hybrid vaccine derived from Salmonella typhi Ty21a. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):1620-7. PMID: 1692807, PMCID: PMC258689

Noriega FR, Kotloff KL, Martin MA, Schwalbe RS. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Enterobacter sakazakiki and Leuconostoc mesenteroides resulting from extrinsic contamination of infant formula. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Jun;9(6):447-9. PMID: 2114609

Kierszenbaum F, Cuna WR, Beltz LA, Sztein MB. Trypanosomal immunosuppressive factor: a secretion product(s) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhibits proliferation and IL-2 receptor expression by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol. 1990 May 15;144(10):4000-4. PMID: 2185317

Rennels MB, Losonsky GA, Young AE, Shindledecker CL, Kapikian AZ, Levine MM. An efficacy trial of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine in Maryland. The Clinical Study Group. Am J Dis Child. 1990 May;144(5):601-4. PMID: 2330930

Ketley JM, Kaper JB, Herrington DA, Losonsky G, Levine MM. Diminished immunogenicity of a recombination-deficient derivative of Vibrio cholerae vaccine strain CVD103. Infect Immun. 1990 May;58(5):1481-4. PMID: 2323828, PMCID: PMC258653

Vial PA, Mathewson JJ, DuPont HL, Guers L, Levine MM.Comparison of two assay methods for patterns of adherence to HEp-2 cells of Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 May;28(5):882-5. PMID: 2191011, PMCID: PMC267829

Sztein MB, Cuna WR, Kierszenbaum F. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, and IL-2R by mitogen-activated helper and cytotoxic human lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1990 May 1;144(9):3558-62. PMID: 2139458

Levine MM. Modern vaccines. Enteric infections. Lancet. 1990 Apr 21;335(8695):958-61. Review. PMID:


Badamchian M, Goldstein AL, Sztein MB. Immune and neuroendocrine modulation with thymosins: current status of recent clinical trials in the United States. Int J Neurosci. 1990 Apr;51(3-4):365-7. PMID:  2279903

Levine MM, Edelman R. Future vaccines against enteric pathogens. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1990 Mar;4(1):105-21. Review. PMID: 2155260

Vial PA, Kotloff KL, Tall BD, Morris JG Jr, Levine MM. Detection by immune electron microscopy of 27-nm viral particles associated with community-acquired diarrhea in children. J Infect Dis. 1990 Mar;161(3):571-3. PMID:


Black RE, Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Clements ML, Lanata C, Rooney J, Germanier R. Efficacy of one or two doses of Ty21a Salmonella typhi vaccine in enteric-coated capsules in a controlled field trial. Chilean Typhoid

Committee. Vaccine. 1990 Feb;8(1):81-4. PMID: 2180234

Leichtling KD, Serrate SA, Sztein MB. Thymosin alpha 1 modulates the expression of high affinity interleukin-2 receptors on normal human lymphocytes. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1990;12(1):19-29. PMID: 2303316

Schulof RS, Parenti DM, Simon GL, Paxton H, Meyer WA 3rd, Schlesselman SB, Courtless J, LeLacheur S, Sztein MB. Clinical, virologic, and immunologic effects of combination therapy with ribavirin and isoprinosine in HIV-infected homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3(5):485-92. PMID: 1691287

Bessler H, Sztein MB, Serrate SA. Beta-endorphin modulation of IL-1-induced IL-2 production.Immunopharmacology. 1990 Jan-Feb;19(1):5-14. PMID: 1689707


Di John D, Wasserman SS, Torres JR, Cortesia MJ, Murillo J, Losonsky GA, Herrington DA, Stürcher D, Levine MM. Effect of priming with carrier on response to conjugate vaccine. Lancet. 1989 Dec 16;2(8677):1415-8. PMID: 2480499

Davis JR, Murphy JR, Baqar S, Clyde DF, Herrington DA, Levine MM. Estimate of anti-Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite activity in humans vaccinated with synthetic circumsporozoite protein (NANP)3. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Nov-Dec;83(6):748-50. PMID: 2694506

Hall RH, Maneval DR Jr, Collins JH, Theibert JL, Levine MM. Purification and analysis of colonization factor antigen I, coli surface antigen 1, and coli surface antigen 3 fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):6372-4. PMID: 2572583, PMCID: PMC210515

Sharma DP, Thomas C, Hall RH, Levine MM, Attridge SR. Significance of toxin-coregulated pili as protective antigens of Vibrio cholerae in the infant mouse model. Vaccine. 1989 Oct;7(5):451-6. PMID: 2573216

Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA, Morris JG Jr, Wasserman SS, Singh-Naz N, Levine MM. Enteric adenovirus infection and childhood diarrhea: an epidemiologic study in three clinical settings. Pediatrics. 1989 Aug;84(2):219-25. PMID: 2546121

Miliotis MD, Galen JE, Kaper JB, Morris JG Jr. Development and testing of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jul;27(7):1667-70. PMID: 2768454,

PMCID: PMC267638

Levine MM, Taylor DN, Ferreccio C. Typhoid vaccines come of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Jun;8(6):374-81. Review. PMID: 2664693

DuPont HL, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Formal SB. Inoculum size in shigellosis and implications for expected mode of transmission. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jun;159(6):1126-8. PMID: 2656880

Bhan MK, Raj P, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Bhandari N, Srivastava R, Kumar R, Sazawal S. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli associated with persistent diarrhea in a cohort of rural children in India. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jun;159(6):1061-4. PMID: 2656875

Kotloff KL, Blackmon LR, Tenney JH, Rennels MB, Morris JG Jr. Nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit. South Med J. 1989 Jun;82(6):699-704. PMID: 2734634

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, Tacket CO, Germanier R. Progress in vaccines against typhoid fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 May-Jun;11 Suppl 3:S552-67. Review. PMID: 2669099

Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Rodriguez H, Contreras R. Comparative efficacy of two, three, or four doses of TY21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsules: a field trial in an endemic area. J Infect Dis. 1989 Apr;159(4):766-9. PMID: 2647863

Richardson K, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Human immune response to Vibrio cholerae O1 whole cells and isolated outer membrane antigens. Infect Immun. 1989 Feb;57(2):495-501. PMID: 2912896, PMCID: PMC313123

Murphy JR, Wasserman SS, Baqar S, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Lindberg AA, Levine MM. Immunity to Salmonella typhi: considerations relevant to measurement of cellular immunity in typhoid-endemic regions. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989 Feb;75(2):228-33. PMID: 2702777, PMCID: PMC1542130

Bhan MK, Bhandari N, Sazawal S, Clemens J, Raj P, Levine MM, Kaper JB. Descriptive epidemiology of persistent diarrhoea among young children in rural northern India. Bull World Health Organ. 1989;67(3):281-8. PMID: 2670297, PMCID: PMC2491248

Wolf MK, Andrews GP, Tall BD, McConnell MM, Levine MM, Boedeker EC. Characterization of CS4 and CS6 antigenic components of PCF8775, a putative colonization factor complex from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E8775. Infect Immun. 1989 Jan;57(1):164-73. PMID: 2491834, PMCID: PMC313061


Finch MJ, Morris JG Jr, Kaviti J, Kagwanja W, Levine MM. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant cholera in Kenya and East Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):484-90. PMID: 3195696

Kotloff KL, Wasserman SS, Steciak JY, Tall BD, Losonsky GA, Nair P, Morris JG Jr, Levine MM. Acute diarrhea in Baltimore children attending an outpatient clinic. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Nov;7(11):753-9. PMID: 3231498

Herrington DA, Hall RH, Losonsky G, Mekalanos JJ, Taylor RK, Levine MM. Toxin, toxin-coregulated pili, and the toxR regulon are essential for Vibrio cholera pathogenesis in humans. J Exp Med. 1988 Oct 1;168(4):1487-92. PMID: 2902187, PMCID: PMC2189073

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Losonsky G, Tacket C, Tall B. The current status of cholera vaccine development and experience with cholera vaccine trials in volunteers. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1988 Sep;19(3):401-15. PMID: 3217822

Di John D, Levine MM. Treatment of diarrhea. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1988 Sep;2(3):719-45. Review. PMID: 3074125

Levine MM, Tacket CO, Herrington D, Losonsky G, Murphy J, Ferreccio C. The current status of typhoid vaccine development and clinical trials with typhoid vaccines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1988 Sep;19(3):459-69. PMID: 3064323

Levine MM, Herrington D, Clyde D, Murphy J, Davis J, Nussenzweig R, Nardin E, Felix A, Heimer E, Gillesen D, et al. Malaria vaccines: experience with sporozoite vaccines against falciparum malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1988 Sep;19(3):369-74. PMID: 3064320

Kotloff KL, Wade JC, Morris JG Jr. Lack of association between Clostridium difficile toxin and diarrhea in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Sep;7(9):662-3. PMID: 3174309

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Ketley J, Losonsky G, Tacket CO, Tall B, Cryz S. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of recombinant live oral cholera vaccines, CVD 103 and CVD 103-HgR. Lancet. 1988 Aug 27;2(8609):467-70. PMID: 2900401

Tacket CO, Levine MM, Robbins JB. Persistence of antibody titres three years after vaccination with Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever. Vaccine. 1988 Aug;6(4):307-8. PMID: 3188615

Levine MM, Prado V, Robins-Browne R, Lior H, Kaper JB, Moseley SL, Gicquelais K, Nataro JP, Vial P, Tall B. Use of DNA probes and HEp-2 cell adherence assay to detect diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jul;158(1):224-8. PMID: 3292660

Vial PA, Robins-Browne R, Lior H, Prado V, Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Maneval D, Elsayed A, Levine MM. Characterization of enteroadherent-aggregative Escherichia coli, a putative agent of diarrheal disease. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jul;158(1):70-9. PubMed [citation] PMID: 2899125

Ferreccio C, Morris JG Jr, Valdivieso C, Prenzel I, Sotomayor V, Drusano GL, Levine MM. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of chronic typhoid carriers. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jun;157(6):1235-9. PMID: 3373023

Losonsky GA, Rennels MB, Lim Y, Krall G, Kapikian AZ, Levine MM. Systemic and mucosal immune responses to rhesus rotavirus vaccine MMU 18006. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Jun;7(6):388-93. PMID: 2839813

Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Link H, Hoang Y, Guesry P, Hilpert H, Levine MM. Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. N Engl J Med. 1988 May 12;318(19):1240-3. PMID: 3283555

Pizarro D, Levine MM, Posada G, Sandi L. Comparison of glucose/electrolyte and glucose/glycine/electrolyte oral rehydration solutions in hospitalized children with diarrhea in Costa Rica. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1988 May-Jun;7(3):411-6. PMID: 3385554

Cryz SJ Jr, Fürer E, Levine MM. [Effectiveness of oral, attenuated live Salmonella typhi Ty 21a vaccine in controlled field trials]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1988 Apr 2;118(13):467-70. German. PMID: 3375787

Herrington DA, Clyde DF, Murphy JR, Baqar S, Levine MM, do Rosario V, Hollingdale MR. A model for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge and very early therapy of parasitaemia for efficacy studies of sporozoite vaccines. Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Apr;40(2):124-7. PMID: 3043855

Hall RH, Vial PA, Kaper JB, Mekalanos JJ, Levine MM. Morphological studies on fimbriae expressed by Vibrio cholerae 01. Microb Pathog. 1988 Apr;4(4):257-65. PMID: 2904642

Kaper JB, Levine MM. Progress towards a vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Vaccine. 1988 Apr;6(2):197-9. Review. PMID: 2898844

Morris JG Jr, Tall BD, Kotloff KL, Sechter I. Carriage of Citrobacter diversus among young children in Baltimore. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Apr;7(4):394-6. PMID: 3368273

Vial PA, Kotloff KL, Losonsky GA. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in a room for convalescing newborns. J Infect Dis. 1988 Apr;157(4):668-73. PMID: 2831284

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Hughes TP, Blaser MJ. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J Infect Dis. 1988 Mar;157(3):472-9. PMID: 3343522

Levine MM, Vial P. Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea. Indian J Pediatr. 1988 Mar-Apr;55(2):183-90. Review. PMID: 3042619

Levine MM, Ferreccio C. Typhoid vaccines. Lancet. 1988 Jan 23;1(8578):173. PMID: 2892999

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Losonsky G, Morris JG, Clements ML, Black RE, Tall B, Hall R. Volunteer studies of deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 prepared by recombinant techniques. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):161-7. PMID: 3335402, PMCID: PMC259251


Nash TE, Herrington DA, Losonsky GA, Levine MM. Experimental human infections with Giardia lamblia. J Infect Dis. 1987 Dec;156(6):974-84. PMID: 3680997

Murphy JR, Baqar S, Muñoz C, Schlesinger L, Ferreccio C, Lindberg AA, Svenson S, Losonsky G, Koster F, Levine MM. Characteristics of humoral and cellular immunity to Salmonella typhi in residents of typhoid-endemic and typhoid-free regions. J Infect Dis. 1987 Dec;156(6):1005-9. PMID: 3680988

Tzipori S, Karch H, Wachsmuth KI, Robins-Browne RM, O'Brien AD, Lior H, Cohen ML, Smithers J, Levine MM. Role of a 60-megadalton plasmid and Shiga-like toxins in the pathogenesis of infection caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect Immun. 1987 Dec;55(12):3117-25. PMID: 3316033, PMCID: PMC260036

Losonsky GA, Ferreccio C, Kotloff KL, Kaintuck S, Robbins JB, Levine MM. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum Vi antibodies for detection of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;25(12):2266-9. PMID: 3429619, PMCID: PMC269467

Shaw RD, Fong KJ, Losonsky GA, Levine MM, Maldonado Y, Yolken R, Flores J, Kapikian AZ, Vo PT, Greenberg HB. Epitope-specific immune responses to rotavirus vaccination. Gastroenterology. 1987 Nov;93(5):941-50. PMID: 2443417

Nataro JP, Kaper JB, Robins-Browne R, Prado V, Vial P, Levine MM. Patterns of adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Sep;6(9):829-31. PMID: 3313248

Gotuzzo E, Morris JG Jr, Benavente L, Wood PK, Levine O, Black RE, Levine MM. Association between specific plasmids and relapse in typhoid fever. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Sep;25(9):1779-81. PMID: 2821064, PMCID: PMC269329

Levine MM, Kleeman CR. Hypercalcemia: pathophysiology and treatment. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1987 Jul 15;22(7):93-110. PMID: 3110195

Nash TE, Herrington DA, Levine MM. Usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Giardia antigen in feces. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Jul;25(7):1169-71. PMID: 3611309, PMCID: PMC269169

Levine MM, Xu JG, Kaper JB, Lior H, Prado V, Tall B, Nataro J, Karch H, Wachsmuth K. A DNA probe to identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of O157:H7 and other serotypes that cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul;156(1):175-82. PMID: 3298451

Karch H, Heesemann J, Laufs R, Kroll HP, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Serological response to type 1-like somatic fimbriae in diarrheal infection due to classical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Microb Pathog. 1987 Jun;2(6):425-34. PMID: 2467164

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Losonsky G, Herrington D, Berman S, Formal SB. Prevention of shigellosis by a Salmonella typhi-Shigella sonnei bivalent vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jun;155(6):1260-5. PMID: 2437220

Levine MM, Ferreccio C, Black RE, Germanier R. Large-scale field trial of Ty21a live oral typhoid vaccine in enteric-coated capsule formulation. Lancet. 1987 May 9;1(8541):1049-52. PMID: 2883393

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Young CR, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Protective efficacy in humans of killed whole-vibrio oral cholera vaccine with and without the B subunit of cholera toxin. Infect Immun. 1987 May;55(5):1116-20. PMID: 3552989, PMCID: PMC260477

Tacket CO, Maneval DR, Levine MM.Purification, morphology, and genetics of a new fimbrial putative colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O159:H4. Infect Immun. 1987 May;55(5):1063-9. PMID: 2883122, PMCID: PMC260469

Herrington DA, Tzipori S, Robins-Browne RM, Tall BD, Levine MM. In vitro and in vivo pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides. Infect Immun. 1987 Apr;55(4):979-85. PMID: 3557621, PMCID: PMC260448

Levine MM, Herrington D, Murphy JR, Morris JG, Losonsky G, Tall B, Lindberg AA, Svenson S, Baqar S, Edwards MF, et al. Safety, infectivity, immunogenicity, and in vivo stability of two attenuated auxotrophic mutant strains of Salmonella typhi, 541Ty and 543Ty, as live oral vaccines in humans. J Clin Invest. 1987

Mar;79(3):888-902. PMID: 3818953, PMCID: PMC424230

Levine MM. Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea: enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohemorrhagic, and enteroadherent. J Infect Dis. 1987 Mar;155(3):377-89. Review. PMID: 3543152

Rennels MB, Losonsky GA, Shindledecker CL, Hughes TP, Kapikian AZ, Levine MM. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of lowered doses of rhesus rotavirus vaccine strain MMU 18006 in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Mar;6(3):260-4. PMID: 3033593

Pizarro DT, Posada GS, Levine MM, Nalin DR, Mohs EV. Comparison of efficacy of oral rehydration fluids administered at 37 degrees C or 23 degrees C. J Trop Pediatr. 1987 Feb;33(1):48-51. PMID: 3573136

Karch H, Heesemann J, Laufs R, O'Brien AD, Tacket CO, Levine MM. A plasmid of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is required for expression of a new fimbrial antigen and for adhesion to epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1987 Feb;55(2):455-61. PMID: 2879796, PMCID: PMC260350

Kotloff KL, Vial PA, Young JW, Smith AG. Histoplasma duboisii infection in a Liberian girl. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Feb;6(2):202-5.  PMID: 3562140

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Hughes T, O'Donnell S. Association between O blood group and occurrence and severity of diarrhoea due to Escherichia coli. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81(1):120-3. PMID: 3127953


Thompson MR, Jordan RL, Luttrell MA, Brandwein H, Kaper JB, Levine MM, Giannella RA. Blinded, two-laboratory comparative analysis of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin production by using monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, suckling mouse assay, and gene probes. J Clin Microbiol.1986 Nov;24(5):753-8. PMID: 3533986, PMCID: PMC269023

Levine MM, Kirschenbaum MA, Chaudhari A, Wong MW, Bricker NS. Effect of protein on glomerular filtration rate and prostanoid synthesis in normal and uremic rats. Am J Physiol. 1986 Oct;251(4 Pt 2):F635-41. PMID: 3766740

Rennels MB, Losonsky GA, Levine MM, Kapikian AZ. Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of rhesus rotavirus vaccine strain MMU 18006 in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Sep-Oct;5(5):587-8. PMID: 3020521

Tacket CO, Ferreccio C, Robbins JB, Tsai CM, Schulz D, Cadoz M, Goudeau A, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity of two Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines. J Infect Dis. 1986 Aug;154(2):342-5. PMID: 2425009

Maher KO, Morris JG Jr, Gotuzzo E, Ferreccio C, Ward LR, Benavente L, Black RE, Rowe B, Levine MM. Molecular techniques in the study of Salmonella typhi in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas: comparison with Vi phage typing. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986 Jul;35(4):831-5. PMID: 3014915

Edelman R, Levine MM. Summary of an international workshop on typhoid fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1986 May-Jun;8(3):329-49. PMID: 3726393

Levine MM. Antimicrobial therapy for infectious diarrhea. Rev Infect Dis. 1986 May-Jun;8 Suppl 2:S207-16. Review. PMID: 3523717

Harris JR, Holmberg SD, Parker RD, Kay DE, Barrett TJ, Young CR, Levine MM, Blake PA. Impact of epidemic cholera in a previously uninfected island population: evaluation of a new seroepidemiologic method. Am J Epidemiol. 1986 Mar;123(3):424-30. PMID: 3946388

Sears SD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM. Sensitivity of Moore sewer swabs for isolating Salmonella typhi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Feb;51(2):425-6. PMID: 3513705, PMCID: PMC238885

Rennels MB, Levine MM. Classical bacterial diarrhea: perspectives and update--Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb;5(1 Suppl):S91-100. PMID: 3511463

Levine MM, Losonsky G, Herrington D, Kaper JB, Tacket C, Rennels MB, Morris JG. Pediatric diarrhea: the challenge of prevention. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb;5(1 Suppl):S29-43. PMID: 3511461

Levine MM. Clinical and field trials to assess the efficacy of vaccines against bacterial enteric infections. Ann Sclavo Collana Monogr. 1986;3(1-2):41-50. Review. PMID: 3322343

Germanier R, Levine MM. The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a: recent field trial results. Ann Sclavo Collana Monogr. 1986;3(1-2):19-22. PMID: 3079554

Losonsky GA, Rennels MB, Kapikian AZ, Midthun K, Ferra PJ, Fortier DN, Hoffman KM, Baig A, Levine MM. Safety, infectivity, transmissibility and immunogenicity of rhesus rotavirus vaccine (MMU 18006) in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb;5(1):25-9. PMID: 3003715


Murray BE, Alvarado T, Kim KH, Vorachit M, Jayanetra P, Levine MM, Prenzel I, Fling M, Elwell L, McCracken GH, et al. Increasing resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among isolates of Escherichia coli in developing countries. J Infect Dis. 1985 Dec;152(6):1107-13. PMID: 3905979

Lanata CF, Kaper JB, Baldini MM, Black RE, Levine MM. Sensitivity and specificity of DNA probes with the stool blot technique for detection of Escherichia coli enterotoxins. J Infect Dis. 1985 Nov;152(5):1087-90. PMID: 3900238

Nataro JP, Baldini MM, Kaper JB, Black RE, Bravo N, Levine MM. Detection of an adherence factor of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli with a DNA probe. J Infect Dis. 1985 Sep;152(3):560-5. PMID: 2863319

Levine MM, Nataro JP, Karch H, Baldini MM, Kaper JB, Black RE, Clements ML, O'Brien AD. The diarrheal response of humans to some classic serotypes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is dependent on a plasmid encoding an enteroadhesiveness factor. J Infect Dis. 1985 Sep;152(3):550-9. PMID: 2863318

Levine MM. Escherichia coli infections. N Engl J Med. 1985 Aug 15;313(7):445-7. PMID: 2862583

Nataro JP, Scaletsky IC, Kaper JB, Levine MM, Trabulsi LR.Plasmid-mediated factors conferring diffuse and localized adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):378-83. PMID:

2859247, PMCID: PMC261317

Murray BE, Levine MM, Cordano AM, D'Ottone K, Jayanetra P, Kopecko D, Pan-Urae R, Prenzel I. Survey of plasmids in Salmonella typhi from Chile and Thailand. J Infect Dis. 1985 Mar;151(3):551-5. PMID:


Levine MM, Young CR, Black RE, Takeda Y, Finkelstein RA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure antibodies to purified heat-labile enterotoxins from human and porcine strains of Escherichia coli and to cholera toxin: application in serodiagnosis and seroepidemiology. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Feb;21(2):174-9. PMID: 3882744, PMCID: PMC271608

Black RE, Cisneros L, Levine MM, Banfi A, Lobos H, Rodriguez H. Case-control study to identify risk factors for paediatric endemic typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile. Bull World Health Organ. 1985;63(5):899-904. PMID:

3879201, PMCID: PMC2536445


Morris JG Jr, Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobos H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. Typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile: a study of household contacts of pediatric patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984 Nov;33(6):1198-202. PMID: 6507731

Long-Krug SA, Weikel CS, Tiemens KT, Hewlett EL, Levine MM, Guerrant RL. Does enteropathogenic Escherichia coli produce heat-labile enterotoxin, heat-stable enterotoxins a or b, or cholera toxin A subunits? Infect Immun. 1984 Nov;46(2):612-4. PMID: 6389354, PMCID: PMC261579

Svennerholm AM, Levine MM, Holmgren J. Weak serum and intestinal antibody responses to Vibrio cholerae soluble hemagglutinin in cholera patients. Infect Immun. 1984 Sep;45(3):792-4. PMID: 6469362, PMCID: PMC263371

Booth IW, Levine MM, Harries JT. Oral rehydration therapy in acute diarrhoea in childhood. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1984 Sep;3(4):491-9. Review. PMID: 6384454

Lockman HA, Galen JE, Kaper JB. Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin genes: nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA encoding ADP-ribosyltransferase. J Bacteriol. 1984 Sep;159(3):1086-9. PMID: 6090390, PMCID: PMC215778

Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Manterola A, Rodriguez G, Rivara I, Prenzel I, Black RE, Mancuso T, Bulas D. Benign bacteremia caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in children younger than 2 years. J Pediatr. 1984 Jun;104(6):899-901. PMID: 6427437

Sears SD, Richardson K, Young C, Parker CD, Levine MM. Evaluation of the human immune response to outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1984 May;44(2):439-44. PMID: 6715044, PMCID: PMC263538

Levine MM, Ristaino P, Marley G, Smyth C, Knutton S, Boedeker E, Black R, Young C, Clements ML, Cheney C, et al. Coli surface antigens 1 and 3 of colonization factor antigen II-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: morphology, purification, and immune responses in humans. Infect Immun. 1984 May;44(2):409-20. PMID: 6370866, PMCID: PMC263534

Kaper JB, Lockman H, Baldini MM, Levine MM. Recombinant nontoxinogenic Vibrio cholerae strains as attenuated cholera vaccine candidates. Nature. 1984 Apr 12-18;308(5960):655-8. PMID: 6324005

Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Kaper JB. Present status of cholera vaccines. Biochem Soc Trans. 1984 Apr;12(2):200-2. PMID: 6724113

Sears SD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Cordano AM, Monreal J, Black RE, D'Ottone K, Rowe B. The use of Moore swabs for isolation of Salmonella typhi from irrigation water in Santiago, Chile. J Infect Dis. 1984 Apr;149(4):640-2. PMID: 6373964

Pizarro D, Posada G, Levine MM. Hypernatremic diarrheal dehydration treated with "slow" (12-hour) oral rehydration therapy: a preliminary report. J Pediatr. 1984 Feb;104(2):316-9. PMID: 6694033

Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Lanata C, Sears S, Honda T, Young CR, Finkelstein RA. Evaluation in humans of attenuated Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa strain Texas Star-SR as a live oral vaccine. Infect Immun. 1984 Feb;43(2):515-22. PMID: 6693169, PMCID: PMC264327

O'Brien AD, Chen ME, Holmes RK, Kaper J, Levine MM. Environmental and human isolates of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus produce a Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga)-like cytotoxin. Lancet. 1984 Jan 14;1(8368):77-8. PMID: 6140426

Levine MM, Pizarro D. Advances in therapy of diarrheal dehydration: oral rehydration. Adv Pediatr. 1984;31:207-34. PMID: 6516944

Levine MM, Edelman R. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of classic serotypes associated with infant diarrhea: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Epidemiol Rev. 1984;6:31-51. Review. PMID: 6386503


Slatkin DN, Levine MM, Aronson A. The use of heavy water in boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours. Phys Med Biol. 1983 Dec;28(12):1447-51. PMID: 6665038

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Black RE, Clements ML. New knowledge on pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections as applied to vaccine development. Microbiol Rev. 1983 Dec;47(4):510-50. Review. PMID: 6363898, PMCID: PMC281589

Clements ML, Wisseman CL Jr, Woodward TE, Fiset P, Dumler JS, McNamee W, Black RE, Rooney J, Hughes TP, Levine MM. Reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a chick embryo cell-derived vaccine for Rocky Mountain spotted fever. J Infect Dis. 1983 Nov;148(5):922-30. PMID: 6415182

Clements ML, Dumler JS, Fiset P, Wisseman CL Jr, Snyder MJ, Levine MM. Serodiagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever: comparison of IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and indirect fluorescent antibody test. J Infect Dis. 1983 Nov;148(5):876-80. PMID: 6415180

Taylor DN, Harris JR, Barrett TJ, Hargrett NT, Prentzel I, Valdivieso C, Palomino C, Levine MM, Blake PA.Detection of urinary Vi antigen as a diagnostic test for typhoid fever. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Oct;18(4):872-6. PMID: 6630465, PMCID: PMC270921

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Lockman H, Black RE, Clements ML, Falkow S. Recombinant DNA risk assessment studies in humans: efficacy of poorly mobilizable plasmids in biologic containment. J Infect Dis. 1983 Oct;148(4):699-709. PMID: 6355313

Ristaino PA, Levine MM, Young CR. Improved GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Oct;18(4):808-15. PMID: 6355161, PMCID: PMC270911

Moon HW, Whipp SC, Argenzio RA, Levine MM, Giannella RA. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines. Infect Immun. 1983 Sep;41(3):1340-51. PMID: 6350186, PMCID: PMC264644

Levine MM, Kaper JB, Lockman H, Black RE, Clements ML, Falkow S. Recombinant DNA risk assessment studies in man: efficacy of poorly mobilizable plasmids in biologic containment. Recomb DNA Tech Bull. 1983 Sep;6(3):89-97. PMID: 6314442

Lanata CF, Levine MM, Ristori C, Black RE, Jimenez L, Salcedo M, Garcia J, Sotomayor V. Vi serology in detection of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers in an endemic area. Lancet. 1983 Aug 20;2(8347):441-3. PMID: 6192305

Pizarro D, Posada G, Villavicencio N, Mohs E, Levine MM. Oral rehydration in hypernatremic and hyponatremic diarrheal dehydration. Am J Dis Child. 1983 Aug;137(8):730-4. PMID: 6869329

Baldini MM, Kaper JB, Levine MM, Moon HW. Molecular nature of adhesion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet. 1983 Jul 23;2(8343):218. PMID: 6135051

Kaper JB, Levine MM. Toxins in environmental Vibrio cholerae. Lancet. 1983 Jul 23;2(8343):217-8. PMID: 6135049

Clements ML, O'Donnell S, Levine MM, Chanock RM, Murphy BR. Dose response of A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) cold-adapted reassortant vaccine virus in adult volunteers: role of local antibody in resistance to infection with vaccine virus. Infect Immun. 1983 Jun;40(3):1044-51. PMID: 6852910, PMCID: PMC348156

Edelman R, Levine MM. From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Summary of a workshop on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jun;147(6):1108-18. PMID: 6343525

Levine MM. Vaccines to prevent travelers' diarrhea. Ther Umsch. 1983 Mar;40(3):253-6. PMID: 6344308

Levine MM, Ristaino P, Sack RB, Kaper JB, Orskov F, Orskov I. Colonization factor antigens I and II and type 1 somatic pili in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: relation to enterotoxin type. Infect Immun. 1983 Feb;39(2):889-97. PMID: 6131869, PMCID: PMC348031

Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Young CR, Lanata C, Sears S, Honda T, Finkelstein R. Texas Star-SR: attenuated "Vibrio cholerae" oral vaccine candidate. Dev Biol Stand. 1983;53:59-65. PMID: 6873477

Clements ML, Levine MM, Ristaino PA, Daya VE, Hughes TP. Exogenous lactobacilli fed to man - their fate and ability to prevent diarrheal disease. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1983;7(3-4):29-37. PMID: 6657981

Baldini MM, Kaper JB, Levine MM, Candy DC, Moon HW. Plasmid-mediated adhesion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.1983;2(3):534-8. PMID: 6352891

Wyatt RG, Kapikian AZ, Greenberg HB, Kalica AR, Flores J, Hoshino Y, Chanock RM, Levine MM. Development of vaccines against rotavirus disease. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1983;7(3-4):189-92. PMID: 6318264

Black R, Levine MM, Young C, Rooney J, Levine S, Clements ML, O'Donnell S, Hugues T, Germanier R. Immunogenicity of Ty21a attenuated "Salmonella typhi" given with sodium bicarbonate or in enteric-coated capsules. Dev Biol Stand. 1983;53:9-14. PMID: 6307787

Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Levine MM, Black RE, Greenberg HB, Flores J, Kalica AR, Hoshino Y, Chanock RM. Studies in volunteers with human rotaviruses. Dev Biol Stand. 1983;53:209-18. PMID: 6307776

Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Levine MM, Yolken RH, VanKirk DH, Dolin R, Greenberg HB, Chanock RM. Oral administration of human rotavirus to volunteers: induction of illness and correlates of resistance. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jan;147(1):95-106.

Levine MM. Travellers' diarrhoea: prospects for successful immunoprophylaxis. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1983;84:121-34. Review. PMID: 6138855


Levine MM, Black RE, Lanata C. Precise estimation of the numbers of chronic carriers of Salmonella typhi in Santiago, Chile, an endemic area. J Infect Dis. 1982 Dec;146(6):724-6. PMID: 7142746

Levine MM, Nudel DB, Gootman N, Wolpowitz A, Wisoff BG. Pulmonary sequestration causing congestive heart failure in infancy: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Ann Thorac Surg. 1982 Nov;34(5):581-5. PMID: 7138125

Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM, Rowe B, Gabriel EM. Failure to detect conventional enterotoxins in classical enteropathogenic (serotyped) Escherichia coli strains of proven pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 1982 Nov;38(2):798-801. PMID: 6754624, PMCID: PMC347811

Hobbins TE, Hughes TP, Rennels MB, Murphy BR, Levine MM. Bronchial reactivity in experimental infections with influenza virus. J Infect Dis. 1982 Oct;146(4):468-71. PMID: 6750006

Huang CT, Levine MM, Daoud GS, Nalin DR, Nichols BL. Fecal steroids in diarrhea: IV. Cholera.Lipids. 1982 Sep;17(9):612-6. PMID: 7144450

Tolpin MD, Clements ML, Levine MM, Black RE, Saah AJ, Anthony WC, Cisneros L, Chanock RM, Murphy BR. Evaluation of a phenotypic revertant of the A/Alaska/77-ts-1A2 reassortant virus in hamsters and in seronegative adult volunteers: further evidence that the temperature-sensitive phenotype is responsible for attenuation of ts-1A2 reassortant viruses. Infect Immun. 1982 May;36(2):645-50. PMID: 7085075, PMCID: PMC351277

Levine MM. Bacillary dysentery: mechanisms and treatment. Med Clin North Am. 1982 May;66(3):623-38. Review. PMID: 6176818

Clements ML, Levine MM, Young CR, Black RE, Lim YL, Robins-Browne RM, Craig JP. Magnitude, kinetics, and duration of vibriocidal antibody responses in North Americans after ingestion of Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1982 Apr;145(4):465-73. PMID: 7069227

Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Cisneros L, Saah A, Nalin DR, Gill DM, Craig JP, Young CR, Ristaino P. The pathogenicity of nonenterotoxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype El Tor isolated from sewage water in Brazil. J Infect Dis. 1982 Mar;145(3):296-9. PMID: 7061878

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Cisneros L, Daya V. Treatment of experimentally induced enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea with trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or placebo. Rev Infect Dis. 1982

Mar-Apr;4(2):540-5. PMID: 7051247

Levine MM, Black RE, Brinton CC Jr, Clements ML, Fusco P, Hughes TP, O'Donnell S, Robins-Browne R, Wood S, Young CR. Reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy studies of Escherichia coli type 1 somatic pili parenteral vaccine in man. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1982;33:83-95. PMID: 6127806


Kaper JB, Levine MM. Cloned cholera enterotoxin genes in study and prevention of cholera. Lancet. 1981 Nov 21;2(8256):1162-3. PMID: 6118594

Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Angle P, Robins-Browne R. Proliferation of enteropathogens in oral rehydration solutions prepared with river water from Honduras and Surinam. J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Oct;84(5):195-7. PMID: 7299876

Levine MM. Oral therapy for diarrhoea: past, present and future. J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Oct;84(5):185-7. PMID: 7299875

Clements ML, Levine MM, Cleaves F, Hughes TP, Caceres M, Aleman E, Black RE, Rust J. Comparison of simple sugar/salt versus glucose/electrolyte oral rehydration solutions in infant diarrhoea. J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Oct;84(5):189-94. PMID: 7029004

Levine MM, Young CR, Hughes TP, O'Donnell S, Black RE, Clements ML, Robins-Browne R, Lim YL. Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans: relevance for seroepidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Sep;114(3):348-54. PMID: 7304570

Huang CT, Levine MM, Woodward WE, Gopalakrishna GS, Nalin DR, Hornick RB, Nochols BL. Biohydrogenation of cholesterol as an index of bacterial 7 alpha-dehydroxylase activity. Lipids. 1981 Sep;16(9):670-6. PMID: 7289799

Clements ML, Levine MM, Black RE, Robins-Browne RM, Cisneros LA, Drusano GL, Lanata CF, Saah AJ. Lactobacillus prophylaxis for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981 Jul;20(1):104-8. PMID: 6792978, PMCID: PMC181640

Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Cisneros L, Nalin DR, Young CR. Duration of infection-derived immunity to cholera. J Infect Dis. 1981 Jun;143(6):818-20. PMID: 7252264

Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Clements ML, Anthony WC, Sear AJ, Cisneros LA, Rennels MB, Miller EH, Black RE, Levine MM, Betts RF, Douglas RG Jr, Maassab HF, Cox NJ, Kendal AP. Evaluation of A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) cold-adapted recombinant viruses derived from A/Ann Arbor/6/60 cold-adapted donor virus in adult seronegative volunteers. Infect Immun. 1981 May;32(2):693-7. PMID: 7251144, PMCID: PMC351503

Levine MM, Clements ML, Black RE, Hughes TP, Blum D, Andino R, Corrales G. A practical, reliable method for preparing simple sugar/salt oral rehydration solution. J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Apr;84(2):73-6. PMID: 7218406

Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM. The fate of ingested lactobacilli in the proximal small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Apr;34(4):514-9. PMID: 6784568

Snyder JD, Allegra DT, Levine MM, Craig JP, Feeley JC, DeWitt WE, Blake PA. Serologic studies of naturally acquired infection with Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 in the United States. J Infect Dis. 1981 Feb;143(2):182-7. PMID: 7194358

Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM. Effect of chlorpromazine on intestinal secretion mediated by Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin and 8-Br-cyclic GMP in infant mice. Gastroenterology. 1981 Feb;80(2):321-6. PMID:


Levine MM. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in humans and animals. Ciba Found Symp. 1981;80:142-60. Review. PMID: 6114818


Pizarro D, Posada G, Levine MM, Mohs E. Oral rehydration of infants with acute diarrhoeal dehydration: a practical method. J Trop Med Hyg. 1980 Dec;83(6):241-5. PMID: 7441800

Clements ML, Levine MM, Black RE, Hughes TP, Rust J, Tome FC. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens. Lancet. 1980 Oct 18;2(8199):854. PMID: 6107515

Rennels MB, Levine MM, Daya V, Angle P, Young C. Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories. J Infect Dis. 1980 Sep;142(3):328-31. PMID: 7003031

Levine MM, Hughes TP, Black RE, Clements ML, Matheny S, Siegel A, Cleaves F, Gutierrez C, Foote DP, Smith W. Variability of sodium and sucrose levels of simple sugar/salt oral rehydrations solutions prepared under optimal and field conditions. J Pediatr. 1980 Aug;97(2):324-7. PMID: 7400910

Murphy BR, Rennels MB, Douglas RG Jr, Betts RF, Couch RB, Cate TR Jr, Chanock RM, Kendal AP, Maassab HF, Suwanagool S, Sotman SB, Cisneros LA, Anthony WC, Nalin DR, Levine MM. Evaluation of influenza A/Hong Kong/123/77 (H1N1) ts-1A2 and cold-adapted recombinant viruses in seronegative adult volunteers. Infect Immun. 1980 Aug;29(2):348-55. PMID: 7216417, PMCID: PMC551124

Clements ML, Levine MM, Black RE, Hughes TP, Nalin DR, Pizarro D, HirschhornN. Oral therapy with glucose electrolyte solution. Lancet. 1980 Jul 5;2(8184):34. PMID: 6104241

Levine MM, Rennels MB, Daya V, Hughes TP. Hemagglutination and colonization factors in enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea. J Infect Dis. 1980 Jun;141(6):733-7.PMID: 6104683

Levine MM, Hale J. Variation of the ratio of scatter to primary radiation in diagnostic radiology. Phys Med Biol. 1980 May;25(3):545-8. PMID: 7403266

Levine MM, Rennels MB, Cisneros L, Hughes TP, Nalin DR, Young CR. Lack of person-to-person transmission of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli despite close contact. Am J Epidemiol. 1980 Mar;111(3):347-55. PMID: 6987863

Murphy BR, Markoff LJ, Chanock RM, Spring SB, Maassab HF, Kendal AP, Cox NJ, Levine MM, Douglas RG Jr, Betts RF, Couch RB, Cate TR Jr. Genetic approaches to attenuation of influenza A viruses for man. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Feb 25;288(1029):401-15. PMID: 6103558

Levine MM. Cholera in Louisiana: old problem, new light. N Engl J Med. 1980 Feb 7;302(6):345-7. PMID: 6985711

Young CR, Levine MM, Craig JP, Robins-Browne R. Microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G cholera antitoxin in humans: method and correlation with rabbit skin vascular permeability factor technique. Infect Immun. 1980 Feb;27(2):492-6. PMID: 7189746, PMCID: PMC550792

Robins-Browne RM, Young CR, Levine MM, Craig JP. Microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin g cholera antitoxin in humans: sensitivity and specificity. Infect Immun. 1980 Feb;27(2):497-500. PMID: 16558121, PMCID: PMC550793

Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Douglas RG, Betts RF, Waterman DH, Holley HP Jr, Hoover DL, Suwanagool S, Nalin DR, Levine MM. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus: evaluation of the Alaska/77-ts-1A2 temperature-sensitive recombinant virus in seronegative adult volunteers. Arch Virol. 1980;65(2):169-73. PMID: 7425857

Huang CT, Levine MM, Daoud GS, Nalin DR, Nichols BL.Fecal steroids in diarrhea. III. Experimentally-induced travellers' diarrhea. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Jan;33(1):40-4. PMID: 6986754

Edelman R, Levine MM. Acute diarrheal infections in infants I. Bacterial and viral causes. Hosp Pract. 1980 Jan;15(1):97-104. PMID: 6243608


Levine MM, Edelman R. Acute diarrheal infections in infants. I. Epidemiology, Treatment, and prospects for immunoprophylaxis. Hosp Pract. 1979 Dec;14(12):89-100. PMID: 511128

Gunn RA, Kimball AM, Pollard RA, Feeley JC, Feldman RA, Dutta SR, Matthew PP, Mahmood RA, Levine MM. Bottle feeding as a risk factor for cholera in infants. Lancet. 1979 Oct 6;2(8145):730-2. PMID: 90813

Douglas RG Jr, Markoff LJ, Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Betts RF, Hayden FG, Levine MM, Van Blerk GA, Sotman SB, Nalin DR. Live Victoria/75-ts-1[E] influenza A virus vaccines in adult volunteers: role of hemagglutinin immunity in protection against illness and infection caused by influenza A virus. Infect Immun. 1979 Oct;26(1):274-9. PMID: 500204, PMCID: PMC414607

Nalin DR, Daya V, Reid A, Levine MM, Cisneros L. Adsorption and growth of Vibrio cholerae on chitin. Infect Immun. 1979 Aug;25(2):768-70. PMID: 489131, PMCID: PMC414510

Nalin DR, Levine MM. Hour of onset of cholera and diarrhoea. Lancet. 1979 Jul 7;2(8132):49-50. PMID: 87933

Levine MM, Nalin DR, Rennels MB, Hornick RB, Sotman S, Van Blerk G, Hughes TP, O'Donnell S, Barua D. Genetic susceptibility to cholera. Ann Hum Biol. 1979 Jul-Aug;6(4):369-74. PMID: 394667

Levine MM, Nalin DR, Hoover DL, Bergquist EJ, Hornick RB, Young CR. Immunity to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1979 Mar;23(3):729-36. PMID: 378834, PMCID: PMC414227

Murphy BR, Holley HP Jr, Berquist EJ, Levine MM, Spring SB, Maassab HF, Kendal AP, Chanock RM. Cold-adapted variants of influenza A virus: evaluation in adult seronegative volunteers of A/Scotland/840/74 and A/Victoria/3/75 cold-adapted recombinants derived from the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 strain. Infect Immun.1979 Feb;23(2):253-9. PMID: 422240, PMCID: PMC414157

Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Levine MM, van Blerk GA, Berquist EJ, Douglas RG, Betts RF, Couch RB, Cate TR Jr. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus: evaluation of the A/Victoria/75-ts-1A2 temperature-sensitive recombinant virus in seronegative adult volunteers. Infect Immun. 1979 Feb;23(2):249-52. PMID: 422239, PMCID: PMC414156

Levine MM, Nalin DR, Craig JP, Hoover D, Bergquist EJ, Waterman D, Holley HP, Hornick RB, Pierce NP, Libonati JP. Immunity of cholera in man: relative role of antibacterial versus antitoxic immunity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(1):3-9. PMID: 442179

Nalin DR, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Bergquist EJ, Hoover D, Holley HP, Waterman D, VanBlerk J, Matheny S, Sotman S, Rennels M. The problem of emesis during oral glucose-electrolytes therapy given from the onset of severe cholera. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(1):10-4. PMID: 442166

Levine MM. Shigella and Salmonella diarrhoeal disease. Trop Doct. 1979 Jan;9(1):4-9. PMID: 419565

Greenberg HB, Levine MM, Merson MH, Sack RB, Sack DA, Valdesuso JR, Nalin D, Hoover D, Chanock RM, Kapikian AZ. Solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay blocking test for detection of antibodies to Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jan;9(1):60-4. PMID: 372216, PMCID: PMC272957

Pizarro D, Posada G, Mohs E, Levine MM, Nalin DR. Evaluation of oral therapy for infant diarrhoea in an emergency room setting: the acute episode as an opportunity for instructing mothers in home treatment. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57(6):983-6. PMID: 317026, PMCID: PMC2395860

Nalin DR, Levine MM, Mata L, de Céspedes C, Vargas W, Lizano C, Loria AR, Simhon A, Mohs E. Oral rehydration and maintenance of children with rotavirus and bacterial diarrhoeas. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57(3):453-9. PMID: 225048, PMCID: PMC2395823


Nalin DR, Levine MM, Young CR, Bergquist EJ, McLaughlin JC. Increased Escherichia coli enterotoxin detection after concentrating culture supernatants: possible new enterotoxin detectable in dogs but not in infant mice. J Clin Microbiol. 1978 Dec;8(6):700-3. PMID: 370144, PMCID: PMC275327

Nalin DR, Levine MM, Rhead J, Bergquist E, Rennels M, Hughes T, O'Donnel S, Hornick RB. Cannabis, hypochlorhydria, and cholera. Lancet. 1978 Oct 21;2(8095):859-62. PMID: 81411

Nalin DR, Levine RJ, Levine MM, Hoover D, Bergquist E, McLaughlin J, Libonati J, Alam J, Hornick RB. Cholera, non-vibrio cholera, and stomach acid. Lancet. 1978 Oct 21;2(8095):856-9. PMID: 81410

Levine MM Rennels MB. E. coli colonisation factor antigen in diarrhoea. Lancet. 1978 Sep 2;2(8088):534. PMID: 79910

Nalin DR, Levine MM, Mata L, de Cespedes C, Vargas W, Lizano C, Loria AR, Simhon A, Mohs E. Comparison of sucrose with glucose in oral therapy of infant diarrhoea. Lancet. 1978 Aug 5;2(8084):277-9. PMID: 79080

Levine MM, Grados O, Gilman RH, Woodward WE, Solis-Plaza R, Waldman W. Diagnostic value of the Widal test in areas endemic for typhoid fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978 Jul;27(4):795-800. PMID: 686246

Levine MM, Hughes TP, Young CR, O'Donnell S, Craig JP, Holley HP, Bergquist EJ. Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. Infect Immun. 1978 Jul;21(1):158-62. PMID: 101456, PMCID: PMC421971

Murphy BR, Markoff LJ, Hosier NT, Rusten HM, Chanock RM, Kendal AP, Douglas RG, Betts RF, Cate TR Jr, Couch RB, Levine MM, Waterman DH, Holley HP Jr. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus: evaluation of A/Victoria/3/75-ts-1[E] recombinant viruses in volunteers. Infect Immun. 1978 Jun;20(3):671-7. PMID: 669819, PMCID: PMC421911

Levine MM, Bergquist EJ, Nalin DR, Waterman DH, Hornick RB, Young CR, Sotman S. Escherichia coli strains that cause diarrhoea but do not produce heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and are non-invasive. Lancet. 1978 May 27;1(8074):1119-22. PMID: 77415

Wald ER, Levine MM. Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia. Arch Dis Child. 1978 Apr;53(4):316-8. PMID: 306225, PMCID: PMC1544889


Gilman RH, Hornick RB, Woodard WE, DuPont HL, Snyder MJ, Levine MM, Libonati JP. Evaluation of a UDP-glucose-4-epimeraseless mutant of Salmonella typhi as a liver oral vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136(6):717-23. PMID: 925379

Levine MM, Hughes TP, Simon P, O'Donnell S, Grauel S, Levine SG. Monovalent inactivated A/New Jersey/8/76 (Hsw1N1) vaccine in healthy children aged three to five years. J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136 Suppl:S571-4. PMID: 342629

Caplan ES, Hughes TP, O'Donnel S, Levine MM, Hornick RB. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of parenteral monovalent influenza A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) virus vaccine in healthy adults. J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136 Suppl:S484-90. PMID: 342622

Levine MM, Woodward WE, Formal SB, Gemski P Jr, DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ. Studies with a new generation of oral attenuated shigella vaccine: Escherichia coli bearing surface antigens of Shigella flexneri. J Infect Dis. 1977 Oct;136(4):577-82. PMID: 333041

Richman DD, Murphy BR, Belshe RB, Rusten HM, Chanock RM, Blacklow NR, Parrino TA, Rose FB, Levine MM, Caplan E. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus. XIV. Production and evaluation of influenza A/Georgia/74-ts-1[E] recombinant viruses in human adults. J Infect Dis. 1977 Aug;136(2):256-62. PMID: 894078

Levine MM, Caplan ES, Waterman D, Cash RA, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ. Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli that produce only heat-stable enterotoxin. Infect Immun. 1977 Jul;17(1):78-82. PMID: 328397, PMCID: PMC421084


Richman DD, Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Gwaltney JM Jr, Douglas RG, Betts RF, Blacklow NR, Rose FB, Parrino TA, Levine MM, Caplan ES. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus. XII. Safety, antigenicity, transmissibility, and efficacy of influenza A/Udorn/72-ts-1[E] recombinant viruses in human adults. J Infect Dis. 1976 Dec;134(6):585-94. PMID: 1003014

Miller RM, Garbus J, Schwartz AR, DuPont HL, Levine MM, Clyde DF, Hornick RB. A modified leukocyte nitroblue tetrazolium test in acute bacterial infection. Am J Clin Pathol. 1976 Nov;66(5):905-10. PMID: 983998

Levine MM, Gangarosa EJ, Barrow WB, Weiss CF. Shigellosis in custodial institutions. V. Effect of intervention with streptomycin-dependent Shigella sonnei vaccine in an institution with endemic disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1976 Jul;104(1):88-92. PMID: 779465

Levine MM, DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Snyder MJ, Woodward W, Gilman RH, Libonati JP. Attenuated, streptomycin-dependent Salmonella typhi oral vaccine: potential deleterious effects of lyophilization. J Infect Dis. 1976 Apr;133(4):424-9. PMID: 1262709

Wald ER, Levine MM. Frequency of detection of Hemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide in infants and children with pneumonia. Pediatrics. 1976 Feb;57(2):266-8. PMID: 1082573

Levine MM, Ashman R, Heald F. Anaerobic (putrid) lung abscess in adolescence. Am J Dis Child. 1976 Jan;130(1):77-81. PMID: 813518

Hornick RB, DuPont HL, Levine MM, Gilman RH, Woodward WE, Snyder MJ, Woodward TE. Efficacy of a live oral typhoid vaccine in human volunteers. Dev Biol Stand. 1976;33:89-92. PMID: 782976

Keusch GT, Jacewicz M, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Kochwa S. Pathogenesis of shigella diarrhea. Serum anticytotoxin antibody response produced by toxigenic and nontoxigenic Shigella dysenteriae 1. J Clin Invest. 1976 Jan;57(1):194-202. PMID: 1107354, PMCID: PMC436639


Gilman RH, Terminel M, Levine MM, Hernandez-Mendosa P, Calderone E, Vasquez V, Martinez E, Snyder MJ, Hornick RB. Comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin in therapy of chloramphenicol-resistant and chloramphenicol-sensitive typhoid fever. J Infect Dis. 1975 Dec;132(6):630-6. PMID: 127815

Levine MM, Hornick RB. Lactulose therapy in Shigella carrier state and acute dysentery. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Nov;8(5):581-4. PMID: 2098, PMCID: PMC429425

Gilman RH, Terminel M, Levine MM, Hernandez-Mendoza P, Hornick RB. Relative efficacy of blood, urine, rectal swab, bone-marrow, and rose-spot cultures for recovery of Salmonella typhi in typhoid fever. Lancet. 1975 May 31;1(7918):1211-3. PMID: 48834


Levine MM, Togo Y, Wald ER. Practicability of influenza surveillance by virus culture of children. Am J Epidemiol. 1974 Oct;100(4):272-6. PMID: 4214418

Levine MM. Live-virus vaccines in pregnancy. Risks and recommendations. Lancet. 1974 Jul 6;2(7871):34-8. PMID: 4134420

Levine MM, Gangarosa EJ, Werner M, Morris GK. Shigellosis in custodial institutions. 3. Prospective clinical and bacteriologic surveillance of children vaccinated with oral attenuated shigella vaccines. J Pediatr. 1974

Jun;84(6):803-6. PMID: 4596999

Levine MM, Rice PA, Gangarosa EJ, Morris GK, Snyder MJ, Formal SB, Wells JG, Gemski P Jr, Hammond J. An outbreak of Sonne shigellosis in a population receiving oral attenuated shigella vaccines. Am J Epidemiol. 1974 Jan;99(1):30-6. PMID: 4590191