- Ph.D. - Biochemistry - Lucknow University, Lucknow, India
- Post-Doctoral - Molecular Biology - National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Dr. Anil Kumar Jaiswal was born in India. He received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India. He did his Post-Doctoral Training from National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (1983-1987). He joined as Assistant Professor at NYU Medical Center, New York followed by Associate Member in Fox Chase Cancer Center. He moved to Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX as Associate Professor in 1997 and was promoted to Full Professor in 2004. He joined the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland as Full Professor in 2007 and Co-Director of Molecular and Mechanistic Toxicology in 2008. He served on numerous NIH CSR review panels for grants, center grants and cancer centers. He also served on Editorial boards and was invited to present his work in numerous national and international forums.
Our research interests include: oxidative stress signaling with a focus on Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) signaling; cell survival and death; chemoprevention; oncogenesis with a focus on hematological malignancies, skin, breast and prostate cancer, and metastasis; drug resistance; and bioreductive drug development.
Oxidative Stress: Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) Signaling in Cell Survival and Death:
Oxidative stress is associated with degenerative diseases, apoptotic cell death, aging, cellular transformation and cancer. The initial response of cells to oxidative stress is to turn on signal(s) that lead to the coordinated activation of a battery of more than one hundred cytoprotective genes including biotransformation/detoxifying enzymes, transporters, and anti-apoptotic proteins that protect against oxidative stress and neoplasia, in order to promote cell survival (Fig. 1). Our lab has focused on Nrf2 and its role in oxidative stress. We have identified antioxidant response element (ARE) and NF-E2 related transcription factors (Nrf2, Nrf1 and Nrf3) that regulate the expression and coordinated induction of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidants, antioxidants, xenobiotics, and radiation. Included in this battery of gene products are antioxidant enzymes [quinone oxidoreductases (NQO1 and NQO2)], antioxidants, anti-apoptotic factors, and tumor suppressor p53. Furthermore, we have determined that Nrf2 is retained in the cytoplasm by a repressor protein INrf2 (Keap1). INrf2 has been cloned and sequenced. The studies also suggested that the INrf2:Nrf2 complex serves as a sensor of chemical/radiation-induced oxidative stress. We have identified kinase(s) and redox factors that mediate signal transduction from ROS to the cytosolic Nrf2/INrf2 complex leading to the release of Nrf2 from INrf2, nuclear localization of Nrf2, and coordinated activation of ARE-containing cytoprotective genes. Currently, we are utilizing molecular biological and biochemical techniques to identify and study the role of the various regulatory molecules that include serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases (PKCs, PI3K/Akt, GSK3b, and Src kinases); phosphatases (PTEN, PP1 and PP2); and redox proteins (NADPH Oxidases, Thioredoxin and Thioredoxin Reductase) in transduction of a signal from ROS to the Nrf2/ARE, which then regulates the induction of a battery of cytoprotective genes leading to cytoprotection and cell survival. The studies are also being performed to determine the role of Nrf2:INrf2 signaling/regulatory molecules/pathways in cell survival and apoptotic cell death.
Mouse Models of Cancer:
Global knockout and Flox/Cre mouse models have been, and are currently being, generated in our laboratory to study the in vivo role of Nrf2, INrf2(Keap1), NQO1 and NQO2 proteins in different cancers.
Primary and Therapy-Related Leukemia and lymphoma:
Disruption of NQO1 and NQO2 in mice led to myelogenous hyperplasia and g-radiation induced myeloproliferative diseases including myeloid leukemia and B-cell lymphoma. In addition, a significant percentage of human individuals with primary and chemotherapy-induced secondary leukemia carry both mutant NQO1 P187S alleles and are deficient in NQO1 protein. These studies together suggest that NQO1 and NQO2 are endogenous factors in protection against primary and therapy-related leukemia and lymphoma. Current goals are to investigate the in vivo role of NQO1 and NQO2 in benzene and chemotherapy-related leukemia/lymphoma. The studies are also investigating the mechanism of the role of NQO1 and NQO2 in protection of myeloid differentiation factors C/EBPa and Pu.1, tumor suppressor p53 and other growth/differentiation factors against 20S proteasomal degradation leading to protection against leukemia and lymphoma.
NQO1-null and NQO2-null mice both show increased susceptibility to chemical-induced skin tumors indicating a role of these proteins in skin cancer prevention. Current studies are focused on the in vivo role of Nrf2, INrf2, NQO1 and NQO2 in UVB-induced skin cancer. We are also studying the role of NQO1 and NQO2 in the stabilization of tumor suppressor p53 and epithelial cell differentiation factor p63 against 20S proteasomal degradation and its significance in protection against chemical induced skin carcinogenesis. In addition, we are performing microarray and proteomic analyses to identify the growth/proliferation/differentiation genes/proteins that might also be targets leading to increased sensitivity to chemically-induced skin cancer in NQO1-null and NQO2-null mice.
Breast and Prostate Cancer:
Preliminary studies have suggested a role of Nrf2 and NQO1 in breast and prostate cancer prevention. Current studies are investigating the in vivo role of Nrf2, INrf2, NQO1 and NQO2 in breast and prostate cancer susceptibility and metastasis. We are also investigating the mechanism of the role of Nrf2 and downstream proteins in cancer prevention.
Mouse Models of Asthma and COPD:
A role of Nrf2 has been shown in protection against COPD. We are using lung specific mouse models of Nrf2 and INrf2 and global NQO1-null and NQO2-null mice to determine the in vivo role of Nrf2, INrf2, NQO1 and NQO2 in protection against asthma and COPD, as well as determine the mechanism of protection.
Bioreductive chemotherapy is based on reductive activation of drugs by enzymes, identification of tumors rich in those enzymes, and differences in oxygen and pH between normal and tumor tissues. Recently, we have identified and cloned the cytosolic glucose regulatory protein (GRP58) that plays a significant role in the activation of antitumor drug mitomycin C leading to DNA cross-linking and cell death. GRP58 was found overexpressed in many tumors that qualify these tumors for selective activation of drugs. Our current goals are to determine the mechanism of the role of GRP58 in mitomycin C-induced DNA cross-linking and study the in vivo role of GRP58 in mouse development and anti-tumor drug toxicity.
Nrf2:INrf2 and Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance:
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are excellent chemotherapeutic drugs to treat breast cancer. However, drug resistance is often a problem. We have observed overexpression of Nrf2 and anti-apoptotic proteins in AI resistance. Current studies are investigating the role of Nrf2 and associated factors in AI resistance and developing therapies to combat AI resistance.
Lab Techniques and Equipment
Protein biochemistry, protein trafficking, molecular biology, signaling, kinases and redox factor studies, cancer biology, apoptosis, imaging, knockout mice, conditional knockout mice, humanized mice, microarray, proteomics, mass spectra analysis of protein modifications including phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, siRNA, shRNA, flow cytometry, cancer models, asthma and COPD models, histology, immunohistochemistry.
Selected Recent Publications from total of 132:
- Role of GRP58 in mitomycin C-induced DNA cross-linking. C. M. Celli, A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 63: 6016-6025, 2003.
- Phosphorylation of Nrf2S40 by PKC in response to antioxidants leads to the release of Nrf2 from INrf2 but not required for Nrf2 stabilization/accumulation in the nucleus and transcriptional activation of ARE-mediated NQO1 gene expression. D. A. Bloom, A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 44675-44682, 2003.
- Laminar shear stress induction of antioxidant response element-mediated genes in endothelial cells: a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism. X. Chen, S. E. Varner, A. S. Rao, J. Y. Grey, S. Thomas, C. K. Cook, R. M. Medford, A. K. Jaiswal, C. Kunch. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 703-711 (2003).
- Genetic susceptibility to benzene-induced toxicity: role of NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase1 (NQO1). A. K. Bauer, B. Faiola, D. J. Abernethy, R. Marchan, L. J. Pluta, V. A. Wong, K. Roberts, A. K. Jaiswal, B. Butterworth, S. Borghoff, H. Parkinson, J. Everitt, L. Recio. Cancer Res. 63: 929-935, 2003.
- Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acid. J. H. Suh, S. V. Shenvi, B. M. Dixon, H. Liu, Anil K. Jaiswal, R. Liu, T. M. Hagen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 3381-3386, 2004.
- Deficiency of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) increases susceptibility to 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene-induced skin carcinogenesis. K. Iskander, M. Paquet, C. Brayton, and A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 64: 5923-5928, 2004.
- Lower induction of p53 and decreased apoptosis in NQO1-null mice lead to increased sensitivity to chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis. K. Iskander, A. Gaikwad, M. Paquet, D.J. Long II, C. Brayton, R. Barrios and Anil K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 65: 2054-2058, 2005.
- Bach1 competes with Nrf2 leading to negative regulation of ARE-mediated NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene expression and induction in response to antioxidants. S. Dhakshinamoorthy, A. K. Jain, D. A. Bloom and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 50810-50817, 2005.
- Nuclear Import and Export Signals in Control of Nrf2. A. K. Jain and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 29158-29168, 2005.
- Phosphorylation of tyrosine 568 controls nuclear export of Nrf2. A. K. Jain and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 12132-12142, 2006.
- BALT development and augmentation of hyperoxic lung injury in mice deficient in NQO1 and NQO2. A. Das, L. Kole, L. Wang, R. Barrios, B. Moorthy, A. K. Jaiswal. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 40: 1843-1856, 2006.
- Genetic deletion of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 abrogates activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, Ikappa B alpha kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt, p38, and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and potentiates apoptosis. K. S. Ahn, G. Sethi, A. K. Jain, A. K. Jaiswal, B. B. Aggarwal. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 19798-19808, 2006.
- NQO1 and NQO2 regulation of humoral immunity and autoimmunity. K. Iskander, L. J. Han, A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 281:19798-19808, 2006.
- Low and high dose UVB regulation of transcription factor NF-E2-Related Factor 2. S. Kannan, A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 66: 8421-8429, 2006.
- NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 protect tumor suppressor p53 against 20s proteasomal degradation leading to stabilization and activation of p53. X. Gong, L. Kole, K. Iskander, A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 67: 5380-5388, 2007.
- GSK-3beta acts upstream of Fyn kinase in regulation of nuclear export and degradation of NF-E2 related factor 2. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 16502-16510, 2007.
- Deficiency of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 differentially regulates TNF signaling in keratinocytes: up-regulation of apoptosis correlates with down-regulation of cell survival kinases. K.S. Ahn, X. Gong, G. Sethi, M.M. Chaturvedi, A.K. Jaiswal, B.B. Aggarwal. Cancer Res. 67: 10004-10011, 2007.
- In vivo Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in metabolic activation of mitomycin C and bone marrow cytotoxicity. A.K. Adikesavan, R. Barrios and A.K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 67: 7966-7971, 2007.
- An auto-regulatory loop between stress sensors INrf2 and Nrf2 controls their cellular abundance. O. Lee, A.K. Jain, V. Papusha, A.K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 36412-36420, 2007.
- Thioredoxin-like domains required for glucose regulatory protein 58-mediated reductive activation of mitomycin C leading to DNA cross-linking. A. K. Adikesavan and A. K. Jaiswal. Mol. Cancer Ther. 6: 2719-2727, 2007.
- Quinone oxidoreductases and vitamin k metabolism. X. Gong, R. Gutala and A. K. Jaiswal. Vitam. Horm. 78: 85-101, 2008.
- Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine 141 regulate stability and degradation of INrf2: A novel mechanism in Nrf2 activation. A. K. Jain, S. Mahajan and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 283: 17712-17720, 2008.
- Disruption of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene in mice leads to radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease. K. Iskander, R.J. Barrios and A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 68: 7915-7922, 2008.
- NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to radiation-induced B-cell lymphomas. K. Iskander, R.J. Barrios and A. K. Jaiswal. Clin. Cancer Res. 15: 1534-1542, 2009.
- S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. Prothymosin-alpha mediates nuclear import of the INrf2/Cul3 Rbx1 complex to degrade nuclear Nrf2. J. Biol. Chem. 284: 13856-13868, 2009.
- Nrf2:INrf2 Signaling in oxidative stress and cell survival. J. W. Kaspar, S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 47:1304-1309, 2009.
- Antioxidant-induced modification of INrf2 cysteine 151 and PKC-delta-mediated phosphorylation of Nrf2 serine 40 are both required for stabilization and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased drug resistance. S. K. Niture, A. K. Jain and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Cell Sci. 122: 4452-4464, 2009.
- Antioxidant-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 486 leads to rapid nuclear export of Bach1 that allows Nrf2 to bind to the antioxidant response element and activate defensive gene expression. J. W. Kaspar and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 153-162, 2010.
- Inactivation of the quinone oxidoreductases NQO1 and NQO2 strongly elevates the incidence and multiplicity of chemically induced skin tumors. J. Shen, R. J. Barrios and A. K. Jaiswal. Cancer Res. 70: 1006-1014, 2010.
- An autoregulatory loop between Nrf2 and Cul3-Rbx1 controls their cellular abundance. J. W. Kaspar and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 21349-21358, 2010.
- Hsp90 interaction with INrf2 (Keap1) mediates stress-induced Nrf2 activation. S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 36865-36875, 2010.
- INrf2 (Keap1) targets Bcl-2 degradation and controls cellular apoptosis. S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. Cell Death & Differentiation 18:439-451, 2011.
- Disruption of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene in mice leads to 20S proteasomal degradation of p63 resulting in thinning of epithelium and chemical-induced skin cancer. B. A. Patrick, X. Gong and A. K. Jaiswal. Oncogene 30: 1098-1107, 2011.
- Tyrosine phosphorylation controls nuclear export of Fyn, allowing Nrf2 activation of cytoprotective gene expression. J. W. Kaspar and A. K. Jaiswal. FASEB J. 25:1076-1087, 2011.
- Src Subfamily Kinases Regulate Nuclear Export and Degradation of Transcription Factor Nrf2 to Switch Off Nrf2-mediated Antioxidant Activation of Cytoprotective Gene Expression. S. K. Niture, A. K. Jain, P. M. Shelton, A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 286: 28821-28832, 2011.
- Inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2 or Keap1) degrades Bcl-xL via phosphoglycerate mutase 5 and controls cellular apoptosis. S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 286: 44542-44556, 2011.
- Antioxidant-induced INrf2 (Keap1) tyrosine 85 phosphorylation controls the nuclear export and degradation of the INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 complex to allow normal Nrf2 activation and repression. J. W. Kaspar, S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Cell Sci. 125: 1027-1038, 2012.
- Stress-induced NQO1 controls stability of C/EBPα against 20S proteasomal degradation to regulate p63 expression with implications in protection against chemical-induced skin cancer. B. A. Patrick and A. K. Jaiswal. Oncogene 31: 4362-4371, 2012.
- Nrf2 protein up-regulates antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and prevents cellular apoptosis. S. K. Niture and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 9873-9886, 2012.
- The importance of HER2 signaling in the tumor-initiating cell population inaromatase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer. R. A. Gilani, A. A. Kazi, P. Shah, A. J. Schech, S. Chumsri, G. Sabnis, A. K. Jaiswal, A. H. Brodie. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 135: 681-692, 2012.
- NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 protects bladder epithelium against painful bladder syndrome in mice. B. A. Patrick, A. Das, A. K. Jaiswal. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 53: 1886-1893, 2012.
- NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) competes with 20S proteasome for binding with C/EBPα leading to its stabilization and protection against radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease. J. Xu and A. K. Jaiswal. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 41608-41618, 2012.
- The transcription factor NF-E2-related Factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene? P. Shelton and A. K. Jaiswal. FASEB J. 27: 414-423, 2013.