Professor of Neurosurgery, Pathology and Physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Dr. Simard received his M.D., Ph.D. from Creighton University in 1980 and completed his residency training in neurosurgery at the University of Florida.
In 1983, he worked with Professor Hans Meves as a post-doctoral fellow at the Physiologisches Institut at the Universitat des Saarlandes in Germany. A board-certified neurosurgeon, Dr. Simard specializes in the treatment of brain tumors, stroke, and related diorders with special emphasis on carotid endarterectomy, aneurysm, and arteriovenous malformations treated by advanced microsurgical techniques and by Gamma Knife. He serves as Chief of Neurological Surgery at the Baltimore Veterans' Affairs Medical Center.
- 2007: Faculty Research Lecturer of the Year, University of Maryland, Baltimore
- 2007: Top Doctor in Neurological Surgery, Baltimore Magazine
- 2008: Outstanding Invention of 2007, University of Maryland, Baltimore
- 2008: Entrepreneur of the Year, University of Maryland, Baltimore
- 2004-2013: 22 patents awarded (3 US and 19 international) and 28 patents pending
- 2011: H. Richard Winn, M.D. Prize of the Society of Neurological Surgeons
- 2011: Super Doctor, Washington Post Magazine
- 2012: Top Doctor in Neurological Surgery, Baltimore Magazine
Dr. Simard is an experienced investigative scientist who is responsible for the original discovery of the Sur1-Trpm4 channel (previously, the Sur1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel) 12 years ago, and for initiating the work showing involvement of the channel in acute diseases of the CNS. He heads an active laboratory focused on acute CNS pathology that employs numerous scientists with expertise in patch clamp electrophysiology, molecular biology, transcriptional regulation, and preclinical models of disease. In recent years, the laboratory has focused heavily on studies of the Sur1-Trpm4 channel in acute CNS diseases including subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage, stroke, hemorrhagic forms of encephalopathy of prematurity, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. His work on the Sur1-Trpm4 channel has led to the award of 22 US and international patents, as well as filings for several others. Notably, this basic science discovery has matured to the point that two clinical trials, one in TBI (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01454154) and one in stroke (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794182), are actively recruiting patients.
Dr. Simard is a clinical neurosurgeon with an active practice of neurosurgery. He specializes in vascular neurosurgery, which includes the surgery and management of patients with intracranial hemorrhages and other vascular lesions of the brain.
Lab Techniques and Equipment:
The Neurosurgical Research Labs, under the direction of Dr. J. Marc Simard, have 2 non-clinical departmental faculty members, all of whom have active extramural funding, solely dedicated to this laboratory. Current funding exceeds $1.5 million per year, from numerous grants from the NIH, Department of Defense, Veterans Administration and private foundations. Twelve full-time research associates, assistants or specialists comprise the support for the wide-ranging translational research efforts of the laboratory. At any time, the lab employs a combination of post-docs, neurosurgical residents, medical students and graduate students who have historically been able to make unique contributions that have lead to high-impact publications. This large mix of talented people provides a unique environment in which neurosurgical residents can develop their scientific interests. In past years, neurosurgery residents have been extremely successful in securing NREF funding and other grants, while working with Dr. Simard.
The Neurosurgical Research Laboratories occupy 4,340 square feet in the School of Medicine. This space includes 3250 square feet of laboratory space plus 1100 square feet of adjoining office space and a conference room. The laboratory space is divided into 3 separate wet labs, 1 cell culture room and 1 cold room for molecular and cellular work, 3 rooms that are used for animal surgeries and behavioral testing, and 1 room for patch clamp electrophysiology. The laboratories are internally connected to the primary site, the University Hospital and the academic offices. The laboratories are fully equipped and house state-of-the-art equipment.
Grants & Contracts:
R01NS061808 (PI: Simard)
02/15/09 - 01/31/15
Pathological role of the SUR1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channel in cortex after subarachnoid hemorrhage This project examines the role of SUR1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage.
R01NS060801 (PI: Simard)
12/01/07 - 06/30/18
Spinal cord injury, progressive hemorrhagic necrosis and the NC(Ca-ATP) channel This project examines the role of SUR1 in spinal cord injury.
R01HL082517 (PI: Simard)
01/19/06 - 12/31/15
Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) - A novel therapeutic target in ischemic stroke This project examines the role of SUR1 in hemorrhagic conversion following stroke.
R01EB015870 (MPI: Desai, Simard, Gullapali)
09/30/12 - 08/31/16
MINIR-II: Minimally Invasive Neurosurgical Intracranial Robot This project develops and tests an MRI-compatible meso-scale robot for intracranial tumor resection.
1I01BX001629 (PI: Simard)
07/01/13 - 06/30/17
Department of Veterans Affairs
Brain injury due to transcranial versus transthoracic blast exposure This project examines mechanisms of brain injury following explosive blast
PT074766 (PI: Simard)
07/07/08 - 07/30/14
Department of the Army - USAMRAA
Glyburide - novel prophylaxis and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury This project examines the role of Trpm4 in blast TBI, and assessed the neuropsychological safety of glyburide prophylaxis in humans.
SC090293 (2 PI's: Popovich, Simard)
09/30/10 - 09/29/14
Department of the Army - USAMRAA
Improving the Efficiency and Efficacy of Glibenclamide in Limiting Progressive Hemorrhagic Necrosis Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury The basic science component (Popovich) will examine the consequences of anisotropy in a rat model of SCI; the clinical component (Simard) will study serum biomarkers in patients with spinal cord injury.
R01NS072501 (PI: Gerzanich)
09/01/11 - 07/31/15
Role of TRP channels in secondary injury after brain trauma This project examines the role of Trpm4 in contusion TBI
- Boggs DH, Simard JM, Steven A, Mehta MP. Potential of glyburide to reduce intracerebral edema in brain metastases. Expert.Rev.Neurother. 2014 Apr;14(4):379-88
- Hong CM, Tosun C, Kurland DB, Gerzanich V, Schreibman D, Simard JM. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage--a systematic review. Biomarkers 2014 Mar;19(2):95-108
- Khanna A, Kahle KT, Walcott BP, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Disruption of ion homeostasis in the neurogliovascular unit underlies the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral edema. Transl.Stroke Res. 2014 Feb;5(1):3-16. PMCID:PMC3946359
- Khanna A, Walcott BP, Kahle KT, Simard JM. Effect of glibenclamide on the prevention of secondary brain injury following ischemic stroke in humans. Neurosurg.Focus. 2014 Jan;36(1):E11
- Sheth KN, Kimberly WT, Elm JJ, Kent TA, Mandava P, Yoo AJ, Thomalla G, Campbell B, Donnan GA, Davis SM, et al. Pilot study of intravenous glyburide in patients with a large ischemic stroke. Stroke 2014 Jan;45(1):281-3
- Simard JM, Sheth KN, Kimberly WT, Stern BJ, Del Zoppo GJ, Jacobson S, Gerzanich V. Glibenclamide in cerebral ischemia and stroke. Neurocrit.Care 2014 Apr;20(2):319-33. PMCID:PMC3954940
- Kahle KT, Walcott BP, Simard JM. Continuous hyperosmolar therapy for traumatic brain injury-associated cerebral edema: as good as it gets, or an iatrogenic secondary insult? J.Clin.Neurosci. 2013 Jan;20(1):30-1. PMCID:PMC3529838
- Koltz MT, Polifka AJ, Saltos A, Slawson RG, Kwok Y, Aldrich EF, Simard JM. Long-term outcome of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations graded by the Spetzler-Martin classification. J.Neurosurg. 2013 Jan;118(1):74-83
- Kurland DB, Tosun C, Pampori A, Karimy JK, Caffes NM, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Glibenclamide for the treatment of acute CNS injury. Pharmaceuticals.(Basel) 2013;6(10):1287-303. PMCID:PMC3817601
- Mehta RI, Ivanova S, Tosun C, Castellani RJ, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 expression in human cerebral infarcts. J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol. 2013 Sep;72(9):871-83. PMCID:PMC3771575
- Ryu JH, Walcott BP, Kahle KT, Sheth SA, Peterson RT, Nahed BV, Coumans JV, Simard JM. Induced and sustained hypernatremia for the prevention and treatment of cerebral edema following brain injury. Neurocrit.Care 2013 Oct;19(2):222-31
- Shivashankar R, Miller TR, Jindal G, Simard JM, Aldrich EF, Gandhi D. Treatment of cerebral aneurysms-surgical clipping or endovascular coiling: the guiding principles. Semin.Neurol. 2013 Nov;33(5):476-87
- Simard JM, Aldrich EF, Schreibman D, James RF, Polifka A, Beaty N. Low-dose intravenous heparin infusion in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary assessment. J.Neurosurg. 2013 Dec;119(6):1611-9
- Simard JM, Popovich PG, Tsymbalyuk O, Caridi J, Gullapalli RP, Kilbourne MJ, Gerzanich V. MRI evidence that glibenclamide reduces acute lesion expansion in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2013 Nov;51(11):823-7
- Tosun C, Koltz MT, Kurland DB, Ijaz H, Gurakar M, Schwartzbauer G, Coksaygan T, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. The Protective Effect of Glibenclamide in a Model of Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy of Prematurity. Brain Sci. 2013 Mar 7;3(1):215-38. PMCID:PMC3647482
- Tosun C, Kurland DB, Mehta R, Castellani RJ, deJong JL, Kwon MS, Woo SK, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Inhibition of the Sur1-Trpm4 channel reduces neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 2013 Dec;44(12):3522-8. PMCID:PMC3894855
- Walcott BP, Kahle KT, Simard JM. The DECRA trial and decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury: is decompression really ineffective? World Neurosurg. 2013 Jan;79(1):80-1
- Walcott BP, Miller JC, Kwon CS, Sheth SA, Hiller M, Cronin CA, Schwamm LH, Simard JM, Kahle KT, Kimberly WT, et al. Outcomes in Severe Middle Cerebral Artery Ischemic Stroke. Neurocrit.Care 2013 Jul 10. PMCID:PMC3880600
- Woo SK, Kwon MS, Ivanov A, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. The sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1)-transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Trpm4) channel. J.Biol.Chem. 2013 Feb 1;288(5):3655-67. PMCID:PMC3561583
- Woo SK, Kwon MS, Ivanov A, Geng Z, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Complex N-glycosylation stabilizes surface expression of transient receptor potential melastatin 4b protein. J.Biol.Chem. 2013 Dec 20;288(51):36409-17. PMCID:PMC3868754
- Aarabi B, Simard JM, Kufera JA, Alexander M, Zacherl KM, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Schwartzbauer G, Maulucci CM, Slavin J, et al. Intramedullary lesion expansion on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with motor complete cervical spinal cord injury. J.Neurosurg.Spine 2012 Sep;17(3):243-50. PMCID:PMC3534760
- Kunte H, Busch MA, Trostdorf K, Vollnberg B, Harms L, Mehta RI, Castellani RJ, Mandava P, Kent TA, Simard JM. Hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke in diabetics on sulfonylureas. Ann.Neurol. 2012 Nov;72(5):799-806. PMCID:PMC3539226
- Kurland D, Hong C, Aarabi B, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Hemorrhagic progression of a contusion after traumatic brain injury: a review. J.Neurotrauma 2012 Jan 1;29(1):19-31. PMCID:PMC3253310
- Simard JM, Popovich PG, Tsymbalyuk O, Gerzanich V. Spinal cord injury with unilateral versus bilateral primary hemorrhage--effects of glibenclamide. Exp.Neurol. 2012 Feb;233(2):829-35. PMCID:PMC3272086
- Simard JM, Tsymbalyuk O, Keledjian K, Ivanov A, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V. Comparative effects of glibenclamide and riluzole in a rat model of severe cervical spinal cord injury. Exp.Neurol. 2012 Jan;233(1):566-74. PMCID:PMC3272255
- Simard JM, Woo SK, Gerzanich V. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 and cell death. Pflugers Arch. 2012 Dec;464(6):573-82. PMCID:PMC3513597
- Simard JM, Geng Z, Silver FL, Sheth KN, Kimberly WT, Stern BJ, Colucci M, Gerzanich V. Does inhibiting Sur1 complement rt-PA in cerebral ischemia? Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2012 Sep;1268:95-107. PMCID:PMC3507518
- Simard JM, Gerzanich V. When replication teaches more than the original experiment--the saga of the unknown unknown. Exp.Neurol. 2012 Feb;233(2):623-4. PMCID:PMC3278910
- Simard JM, Woo SK, Tsymbalyuk N, Voloshyn O, Yurovsky V, Ivanova S, Lee R, Gerzanich V. Glibenclamide-10-h Treatment Window in a Clinically Relevant Model of Stroke. Transl.Stroke Res. 2012 Jun;3(2):286-95. PMCID:PMC3362710
- Simard JM, Tosun C, Ivanova S, Kurland DB, Hong C, Radecki L, Gisriel C, Mehta R, Schreibman D, Gerzanich V. Heparin reduces neuroinflammation and transsynaptic neuronal apoptosis in a model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Transl.Stroke Res. 2012 Jul;3(Suppl 1):155-65. PMCID:PMC3372778
- Simard JM, Woo SK, Schwartzbauer GT, Gerzanich V. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 in central nervous system injury: a focused review. J.Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 2012 Sep;32(9):1699-717. PMCID:PMC3434627
- Walcott BP, Kahle KT, Simard JM. Novel treatment targets for cerebral edema. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jan;9(1):65-72. PMCID:PMC3271162
- Woo SK, Kwon MS, Geng Z, Chen Z, Ivanov A, Bhatta S, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Sequential activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and specificity protein 1 is required for hypoxia-induced transcriptional stimulation of Abcc8. J.Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 2012 Mar;32(3):525-36. PMCID:PMC3293117
- Ho M, McMillan A, Simard JM, Gullapalli R, Desai JP. Towards a Meso-Scale SMA-Actuated MRI-Compatible Neurosurgical Robot. IEEE Trans.Robot. 2011 Oct 10;2011(99):1-10. PMCID:PMC3260790
- Koltz MT, Tosun C, Kurland DB, Coksaygan T, Castellani RJ, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Tandem insults of prenatal ischemia plus postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure in a novel rat model of encephalopathy of prematurity. J.Neurosurg.Pediatr. 2011 Dec;8(6):628-39. PMCID:PMC3465975
- Kuehn R, Simard PF, Driscoll I, Keledjian K, Ivanova S, Tosun C, Williams A, Bochicchio G, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury. J.Neurotrauma 2011 Oct;28(10):2155-69
- Simard JM, Gerzanich V. Targeting the Microvasculature in Cerebral Ischemia-Go (or Stop Going) with the Flow. Transl.Stroke Res. 2011 Jun;2(2):136-7
- Simard JM, Sahuquillo J, Sheth KN, Kahle KT, Walcott BP. Managing malignant cerebral infarction. Curr.Treat.Options.Neurol. 2011 Apr;13(2):217-29. PMCID:PMC3243953
- Simard JM, Kahle KT, Walcott BP. Craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury. N.Engl.J.Med. 2011 Jul 28;365(4):374
- Simard PF, Tosun C, Melnichenko L, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Inflammation of the choroid plexus and ependymal layer of the ventricle following intraventricular hemorrhage. Transl.Stroke Res. 2011 Jun;2(2):227-31. PMCID:PMC3128335
- Walcott BP, Kuklina EV, Nahed BV, George MG, Kahle KT, Simard JM, Asaad WF, Coumans JV. Craniectomy for malignant cerebral infarction: prevalence and outcomes in US hospitals. PLoS.One. 2011;6(12):e29193. PMCID:PMC3237608
- Patel AD, Gerzanich V, Geng Z, Simard JM. Glibenclamide reduces hippocampal injury and preserves rapid spatial learning in a model of traumatic brain injury. J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol. 2010 Dec;69(12):1177-90
- Simard JM, Tsymbalyuk N, Tsymbalyuk O, Ivanova S, Yurovsky V, Gerzanich V. Glibenclamide is superior to decompressive craniectomy in a rat model of malignant stroke. Stroke 2010 Mar;41(3):531-7. PMCID:PMC2845311
- Simard JM, Kahle KT, Gerzanich V. Molecular mechanisms of microvascular failure in central nervous system injury--synergistic roles of NKCC1 and SUR1/TRPM4. J.Neurosurg. 2010 Sep;113(3):622-9. PMCID:PMC3032917
- Simard JM, Schreibman D, Aldrich EF, Stallmeyer B, Le B, James RF, Beaty N. Unfractionated heparin: multitargeted therapy for delayed neurological deficits induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit.Care 2010 Dec;13(3):439-49. PMCID:PMC3012204
- Simard JM, Woo SK, Norenberg MD, Tosun C, Chen Z, Ivanova S, Tsymbalyuk O, Bryan J, Landsman D, Gerzanich V. Brief suppression of Abcc8 prevents autodestruction of spinal cord after trauma. Sci.Transl.Med. 2010 Apr 21;2(28):28ra29. PMCID:PMC2903041
- Aarabi B, Simard JM. Traumatic brain injury. Curr.Opin.Crit Care 2009 Dec;15(6):548-53
- Aarabi B, Hesdorffer DC, Simard JM, Ahn ES, Aresco C, Eisenberg HM, McCunn M, Scalea T. Comparative study of decompressive craniectomy after mass lesion evacuation in severe head injury. Neurosurgery 2009 May;64(5):927-39
- Gerzanich V, Woo SK, Vennekens R, Tsymbalyuk O, Ivanova S, Ivanov A, Geng Z, Chen Z, Nilius B, Flockerzi V, et al. De novo expression of Trpm4 initiates secondary hemorrhage in spinal cord injury. Nat.Med. 2009 Feb;15(2):185-91. PMCID:PMC2730968
- Kahle KT, Simard JM, Staley KJ, Nahed BV, Jones PS, Sun D. Molecular mechanisms of ischemic cerebral edema: role of electroneutral ion transport. Physiology.(Bethesda.) 2009 Aug;24:257-65
- Kilbourne M, Kuehn R, Tosun C, Caridi J, Keledjian K, Bochicchio G, Scalea T, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Novel model of frontal impact closed head injury in the rat. J.Neurotrauma 2009 Dec;26(12):2233-43. PMCID:PMC2824220
- Simard JM, Geng Z, Woo SK, Ivanova S, Tosun C, Melnichenko L, Gerzanich V. Glibenclamide reduces inflammation, vasogenic edema, and caspase-3 activation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J.Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 2009 Feb;29(2):317-30. PMCID:PMC2740919
- Simard JM, Yurovsky V, Tsymbalyuk N, Melnichenko L, Ivanova S, Gerzanich V. Protective effect of delayed treatment with low-dose glibenclamide in three models of ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009 Feb;40(2):604-9. PMCID:PMC2744391
- Simard JM, Kilbourne M, Tsymbalyuk O, Tosun C, Caridi J, Ivanova S, Keledjian K, Bochicchio G, Gerzanich V. Key role of sulfonylurea receptor 1 in progressive secondary hemorrhage after brain contusion. J.Neurotrauma 2009 Dec;26(12):2257-67. PMCID:PMC2824216
- Simard JM, Woo SK, Bhatta S, Gerzanich V. Drugs acting on SUR1 to treat CNS ischemia and trauma. Curr.Opin.Pharmacol. 2008 Feb;8(1):42-9. PMCID:PMC2265539
- Simard JM, Castellani RJ, Ivanova S, Koltz MT, Gerzanich V. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 in the germinal matrix of premature infants. Pediatr.Res. 2008 Dec;64(6):648-52. PMCID:PMC2647511
- Kunte H, Schmidt S, Eliasziw M, Del Zoppo GJ, Simard JM, Masuhr F, Weih M, Dirnagl U. Sulfonylureas improve outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2007 Sep;38(9):2526-30. PMCID:PMC2742413
- Liang D, Bhatta S, Gerzanich V, Simard JM. Cytotoxic edema: mechanisms of pathological cell swelling. Neurosurg.Focus. 2007;22(5):E2. PMCID:PMC2740913
- Simard JM, Tarasov KV, Gerzanich V. Non-selective cation channels, transient receptor potential channels and ischemic stroke. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007 Aug;1772(8):947-57. PMCID:PMC1986778
- Simard JM, Kent TA, Chen M, Tarasov KV, Gerzanich V. Brain oedema in focal ischaemia: molecular pathophysiology and theoretical implications. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Mar;6(3):258-68. PMCID:PMC2725365
- Simard JM, Tsymbalyuk O, Ivanov A, Ivanova S, Bhatta S, Geng Z, Woo SK, Gerzanich V. Endothelial sulfonylurea receptor 1-regulated NC Ca-ATP channels mediate progressive hemorrhagic necrosis following spinal cord injury. J.Clin.Invest 2007 Aug;117(8):2105-13. PMCID:PMC1924498
- Simard JM, Gerzanich V. Sphingolipids and transient receptor potential channels: evolutionarily ancient families now joined. Circ.Res. 2006 Jun 9;98(11):1347-8
- Simard JM, Chen M, Tarasov KV, Bhatta S, Ivanova S, Melnitchenko L, Tsymbalyuk N, West GA, Gerzanich V. Newly expressed SUR1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channel mediates cerebral edema after ischemic stroke. Nat.Med. 2006 Apr;12(4):433-40. PMCID:PMC2740734
- Simard JM, Chen M. Regulation by sulfanylurea receptor type 1 of a non-selective cation channel involved in cytotoxic edema of reactive astrocytes. J.Neurosurg.Anesthesiol. 2004 Jan;16(1):98-9
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