Dr. Buchanan completed his undergraduate studies at Lehigh University, where he earned a B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering. He received his M.D. from UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, before going on to George Washington University Medical Center for his residency training in Psychiatry. Upon completion of his psychiatry residency, he spent two years on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the National Health Services Corps. Dr. Buchanan is now Chief of the Outpatient Research Program at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center (MPRC).
Research Interests:Robert W. Buchanan, M.D. is a Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Interim Director of the MPRC; and Chief of the MPRC Outpatient Research Program. Major research interests include schizophrenia phenomenology; the neuroanatomical and behavioral investigation of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; and the development of novel pharmacological approaches for the treatment of negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, treatment-resistant positive symptoms, and the metabolic disturbances and other side effects associated with the use of antipsychotic medications.
He has previously conducted a series of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to look at structural differences of cortical and subcortical regions between people with schizophrenia and normal controls and, within schizophrenia, between people with and without the deficit syndrome. He has used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and MRS spectroscopy to measure the morphological and chemical characteristics of white matter fiber tracts in order to further delineate the pathophysiology of the deficit form of schizophrenia. He is currently funded to use structural and functional MRI approached to examine the integrity of neural circuits hypothesized to underlie social function.
He has conducted a series of proof of concept and clinical trials examining antipsychotic-reduction strategies in the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia; the use of adjunctive pharmacological agents for the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive impairments; and the comparative efficacy of clozapine and olanzapine for positive and negative symptoms and cognitive impairment in partially responsive outpatients with schizophrenia. He was involved in multiple aspects of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) project, including the identification of potential pharmacological targets for the treatment cognitive impairments and the development of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials of cognitive-enhancing drugs.
He was Co-P.I. on the Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia (TURNS), the MPRC site P.I., and responsible for the design and conduct of TURNS clinical studies. He served a similar role in the Treatment and Evaluation Network for Experimental Targets in Schizophrenia (TENETS), in which he and colleagues conducted proof of concept studies with an alpha-7 partial agonist, a histamine H3 antagonist, and a partial agonist of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors to evaluate their effects on functional imaging biomarkers and/or cognitive impairments. He has had an ongoing role in the development and update of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) psychopharmacological treatment recommendations. These are a set of evidence-based recommendations that have influenced the development of various sets of treatment algorithms and guidelines for schizophrenia. He is currently conducting a series of studies examining novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cognitive and social function impairments and persistent positive symptoms, including the use of add-on oxytocin and anti-inflammatory and anti-viral agents.
Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications
Buchanan RW, Holstein C, Breier A. The comparative efficacy and long-term effect of clozapine treatment on neuropsychological test performance. Biol Psychiatry 36(11):717-725, 1994.
Buchanan RW, Strauss ME, Kirkpatrick B, Holstein C, Breier A, Carpenter WT Jr. Neuropsychological impairments in deficit vs. nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51(10):804-811, 1994.
Buchanan RW, Kirkpatrick B, Bryant N, Ball P, Breier A. Fluoxetine augmentation of clozapine in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 153(12):1625-1627, 1996.
Buchanan RW, Strauss ME, Breier A, Kirkpatrick B, Carpenter WT Jr. Attentional impairments in deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 154(3):363-370, 1997.
Buchanan RW, Breier A, Kirkpatrick B, Ball P, Carpenter WT Jr. Positive and negative symptom response to clozapine in schizophrenic patients with and without the deficit syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 155(6):751-760, 1998.
Buchanan RW, Vladar K, Barta PE, Pearlson GD. A structural evaluation of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 155(8):1049-1055, 1998.
Carpenter WT Jr, Buchanan RW, Kirkpatrick B, Lann H, Breier AF, Summerfelt AT. Comparative effectiveness of fluphenazine decanoate injections every 2 weeks versus every 6 weeks. Am J Psychiatry 156(3):412-418, 1999.
Arango C, Bartko JJ, Gold JM, Buchanan RW. Prediction of neuropsychological performance by neurological signs in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 156(9):1349-1357, 1999.
Gold JM, Queern C, Iannone VN, Buchanan RW. Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status as a screening test in schizophrenia, I: sensitivity, reliability, and validity. Am J Psychiatry 156(12):1944-1950, 1999.
Carpenter WT Jr, Breier A, Buchanan RW, Kirkpatrick B, Shepard P, Weiner E. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms. Neuropsychopharmacology 23(4):365-374, 2000.
Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, Ross DE, Carpenter WT Jr. A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58(2):165-171, 2001
Buchanan RW, Kreyenbuhl J, Zito JM, Lehman A. The schizophrenia PORT pharmacological treatment recommendations: conformance and implications for symptoms and functional outcome. Schizophr Bull 28(1):63-73, 2002.
Buchanan RW, Kreyenbuhl J, Zito JM, Lehman AF. Relationship of the use of adjunctive pharmacological agents to symptoms and level of function in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 159(6):1035-1043, 2002.
Buchanan RW, Francis A, Arango C, Miller K, Lefkowitz DM, McMahon RP, Barta PE, Pearlson GD. Morphometric assessment of the heteromodal association cortex in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 161(2):322-331, 2004.
Marder SR, Essock SM, Miller AL, Buchanan RW, Casey DE, Davis JM, Kane JM, Lieberman JA, Schooler NR, Covell N, Stroup S, Weissman EM, Wirshing DA, Hall CS, Pogach L, Pi-Sunyer X, Bigger JT Jr, Friedman A, Kleinberg D, Yevich SJ, Davis B, Shon S. Physical health monitoring of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 161(8):1334-1349, 2004.
Lehman AF, Kreyenbuhl J, Buchanan RW, Dickerson FB, Dixon LB, Goldberg R, Green-Paden LD, Tenhula WN, Boerescu D, Tek C, Sandson N, Steinwachs DM. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment-recommendations 2003. Schizophr Bull 30(2):193-217, 2004.
Buchanan RW, Ball MP, Weiner E, Kirkpatrick B, Gold JM, McMahon RP, Carpenter WT Jr. Olanzapine treatment of residual positive and negative symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 162(1):124-129, 2005.
Buchanan RW, Davis M, Goff D, Green MF, Keefe RS, Leon AC, Nuechterlein KH, Laughren T, Levin R, Stover E, Fenton W, Marder SR. A summary of the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS Workshop on Clinical Trial Design for Neurocognitive Drugs for Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 31(1):5-19, 2005.
Giuliani NR, Calhoun VD, Pearlson GD, Francis A, Buchanan RW. Voxel-based morphometry versus region of interest: a comparison of two methods for analyzing gray matter differences in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 74(2-3):135-147, 2005.
Bombin I, Arango C, Buchanan RW. Significance and meaning of neurological signs in schizophrenia: two decades later. Schizophr Bull 31(4):962-977, 2005.
Wonodi I, Mitchell BD, Stine OC, Hong LE, Elliott A, Kirkpatrick B, Carpenter WT Jr, Thaker GK, Buchanan RW. Lack of association between COMT gene and deficit/nondeficit schizophrenia. Behav Brain Funct 2:42, 2006.
Potter D, Summerfelt A, Gold J, Buchanan RW. Review of clinical correlates of P50 sensory gating abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 32(4):692-700, 2006.
Cohen AS, Saperstein AM, Gold JM, Kirkpatrick B, Carpenter WT Jr, Buchanan RW. Neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome: new data and meta-analysis of findings to date. Schizophr Bull 33(5):1201-1212, 2007.
Buchanan RW. Persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia: an overview. Schizophr Bull 33(4):1013-1022, 2007.
Buchanan RW, Javitt DC, Marder SR, Schooler NR, Gold JM, McMahon RP, Heresco-Levy U, Carpenter WT. The Cognitive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Trial (CONSIST): the efficacy of glutamatergic agents for negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. Am J Psychiatry 164(10):1593-1602, 2007.
Buchanan RW, Freedman R, Javitt DC, Abi-Dargham A, Lieberman JA. Recent advances in the development of novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 33(5):1120-1130, 2007.
Moore TA, Buchanan RW, Buckley PF, Chiles JA, Conley RR, Crismon ML, Essock SM, Finnerty M, Marder SR, Miller del D, McEvoy JP, Robinson DG, Schooler NR, Shon SP, Stroup TS, Miller AL. The Texas Medication Algorithm Project antipsychotic algorithm for schizophrenia: 2006 update. J Clin Psychiatry 68(11):1751-1762, 2007.
Buchanan RW, Conley RR, Dickinson D, Ball MP, Feldman S, Gold JM, McMahon RP. Galantamine for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165(1):82-89, 2008.
Arango C, McMahon RP, Lefkowitz DM, Pearlson G, Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW. Patterns of cranial brain and sulcal CSF volumes in male and female deficit and nondeficit patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 162(2):91-100, 2008.
Keefe RS, Malhotra AK, Meltzer HY, Kane JM, Buchanan RW, Murthy A, Sovel M, Li C, Goldman R. Efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: significant placebo/practice effects in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 33(6):1217-1228, 2008.
Hong LE, Buchanan RW, Thaker GK, Shepard PD, Summerfelt A. Beta (~16Hz) frequency neural oscillations mediate auditory sensory gating in humans. Psychophysiology 45(2):197-204, 2008.
Freedman R, Olincy A, Buchanan RW, Harris JG, Gold JM, Johnson L, Allensworth D, Guzman-Bonilla A, Clement B, Ball MP, Kutnick J, Pender V, Martin LF, Stevens KE, Wagner BD, Zerbe GO, Soti F, Kem WR. Initial phase 2 trial of a nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165(8):1040-1047, 2008.
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