Humans are perhaps (but not necessarily) unique in our ability to create abstractions upon abstractions of outcomes to guide our behavior, but the general principles and indeed circuits governing this ability appear to be largely conserved in many mammalian species. From humans, to non-human primates, to rats, the evidence indicates that the ability to form and use information about outcomes depends critically upon processing in a circuit of brain regions including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (ABL) and nucleus accumbens (NA). By studying how these brain areas mediate goal-directed behavior in rats, we can understand how the same circuit functions in humans. More importantly, we can also use our model to study how the normal function of this circuit is disrupted in clinical brain disorders and how treatments might address this disruption.
Roesch, M, Calu, DJ, Burke, KA, and Schoenbaum, G. (in press) Should I stay or should i go? Transformation of time-discounted rewards in orbitofrontal cortex and associated brain circuits. Annals of the New York Academy of Science.
Stalnaker, TA, Franz, TM, Singh, T, and Schoenbaum, G. (in press) Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish orbitofrontal-dependent reversal impairments. Neuron.
Roesch, MR, Takahashi, Y, Gugsa, N, Bissonette, GB, and Schoenbaum, G. (2007) Previous cocaine exposure makes rats hypersensitive to both delay and reward magnitude. Journal of Neuroscience. 27: 245-250.
Schoenbaum, G and Takahashi, Y. (2006) Paying attention. Journal of Neurophysiology. 96:2844.
Roesch, MR and Schoenbaum, G. (in press) From Associations to Expectancies: Orbitofrontal Cortex as Gateway Between the Limbic System and Representational Memory. In: The Orbitofrontal Cortex. Edited by DH Zald and SL Rausch.
Stalnaker, T.A., Roesch, M.R., Franz, T.M., Burke, K.A., and Schoenbaum, G. (2006) Abnormal associative encoding in orbitofrontal neurons in cocaine-experienced rats during decision-making. Eur J Neurosci. 24:2643-2653.
Roesch, M.R., Taylor, A.R., and Schoenbaum, G. (2006) Encoding of time-discounted rewards in orbitofrontal cortex is independent of value representation. Neuron. 51:509-520 (also see cover and commentary).
Burke, K.A., Franz, T.A., Gugsa, N., and Schoenbaum, G. (2006) Prior cocaine exposure disrupts extinction of fear conditioning. Learning & Memory. 13:416-421.
Calu, D.J., Roesch, M.R., Stalnaker, T.A., and Schoenbaum, G. (2006) Associative encoding in posterior piriform cortex during odor discrimination and reversal learning. Cerebral Cortex. Epub ahead of print.
Roesch, M., Stalnaker, T., and Schoenbaum, G. Associative encoding in anterior piriform cortex versus orbitofrontal cortex during odor discrimination and reversal learning. Cerebral Cortex. Epub ahead of print.
Schoenbaum, G, Roesch, MR, and Stalnaker, TA. (2006) Orbitofrontal cortex, decision-making, and addiction. TINS. 29:116-124.
Schoenbaum, G, Setlow, B, Saddoris, MP, and Gallagher, M. (2006) Encoding changes in orbitofrontal cortex in reversal-impaired aged rats. J Neurophysiol. 95:1509-1517.
Schoenbaum, G and Stalnaker, TA. (2005) Thanks for the memories... Learn Mem. 12:547-548.
Schoenbaum, G and Roesch, MR. (2005) Orbitofrontal cortex, associative learning, and expectancies. Neuron 47:633-636.
Saddoris, MP, Gallagher, M, and Schoenbaum, G. (2005) Rapid associative encoding in basolateral amygdala depends on connections with orbitofrontal cortex. Neuron 46:321-331.
Schoenbaum, G and Setlow, B. (2005) Cocaine makes actions insensitive to outcomes but not extinction: implications for altered orbitofrontal-amygdalar function. Cerebral Cortex 15:1162-1169.
Schoenbaum, G., Saddoris, M.P., Ramus, S.J., Yavin, S., and Setlow, B. (2004) Cocaine-experienced rats exhibit learning deficits in a task sensitive to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Eur J Neurosci. 19:1997-2002.
Schoenbaum, G. (2004) Affect, action, and ambiguity and the amygdala-orbitofrontal circuit. J Neurophysiol. 91:1938-1939.
Pickens, C., Setlow, B., Saddoris, M.P., Gallagher, M., Holland, P.C., and Schoenbaum, G. (2003) Different roles for orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in a reinforcer devaluation task. J Neurosci 23:11078-11084.
Schoenbaum, G., Setlow, B., and Ramus, S.J. (2003) A systems approach to orbitofrontal cortex function: recordings in rat orbitofrontal cortex reveal interactions with different learning systems. Behavioral Brain Research. 146:19-29.
Schoenbaum, G. and Setlow, B. (2003) Lesions of nucleus accumbens disrupt learning about aversive outcomes. J Neurosci. 23:9833-9841.
Schoenbaum, G., Setlow, B., Saddoris, M.P., and Gallagher, M. (2003) Encoding predicted outcome and acquired value in orbitofrontal cortex during cue sampling depends upon input from basolateral amygdala. Neuron 39: 855-867 (also see cover and commentary)
Setlow, B., Schoenbaum, G., and Gallagher, M. (2003) Neural encoding in nucleus accumbens during olfactory discrimination learning. Neuron 38: 625-636 (also see commentary)
Schoenbaum, G., Setlow, B., Nugent, S.L., Saddoris, M.P., and Gallagher M. (2003) Lesions of orbitofontal cortex and basolateral amygdala complex disrupt acquisition of odor-guided discriminations and reversals. Learn Mem 10: 129-140.
Schoenbaum, G., Nugent, S., Saddoris, M.P., and Setlow, B. (2002) Orbitofrontal lesions in rats impair reversal, not acquisition of go, no-go discriminations. Neuroreport 13: 885-890.
Schoenbaum, G., Nugent, S., Saddoris, M.P., Gallagher, M. (2002) Teaching old rats new tricks: age-related impairments in olfactory reversal learning. Neurobiology of Aging 23: 555-564.
Schoenbaum, G., Setlow, B., and Gallagher, M. (2002) Orbitofrontal Cortex: Modeling Prefrontal Function in Rats. In: The Neuropsychology of Memory, 3rd Edition. Edited by L. Squire and D. Schacter.
Schoenbaum, G. (2002) Olfactory Learning and the Neurophysiological Study of Rat Prefrontal Function. In: CRC Series: Methods in Chemosensory Research. Edited by S.A. Simon and M.A.L. Nicolelis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Related Links: Representation of Incentive Value in OFC and ABL | Olfactory Stimulus Control | Odor Discrimination Training | Noise in Electrophysiology | Metal Microelectrodes for Recording in Behaving Animals | Headstage Amplifiers for Recording in Behaving Animals | Watch Me Learning
Schoenbaum, G. and Setlow, B. (2001) Integrating orbitofrontal cortex into prefrontal theory: common processing themes across species and subdivision. Learn Mem 8:134-147.
Schoenbaum, G., Garmon, J., and Setlow, B. (2001) A novel method for detecting licking behavior during recording of electrophysiological signals from the brain. J. Neurosci. Meth. 106:139-146.
Schoenbaum, G., Chiba, A., and Gallagher, M. (2000) Changes in functional connectivity in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during learning and reversal training. J. Neurosci. 20:5179-5189.
Gallagher, M., McMahan, R.W., Schoenbaum, G. (1999) Orbitofrontal cortex and representation of incentive value in associative learning. J. Neurosci. 19:6610-6614.
Schoenbaum, G., Chiba, A., and Gallagher, M. (1999) Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. J. Neurosci. 19:1876-1884.
Gallagher, M. and Schoenbaum, G. (1999) Functions of the amygdala and related forebrain areas in attention and cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 877:397-411.
Schoenbaum, G. (1998) Cell Assemblies and the Ghost in the Machine. In: Neural Ensembles: Strategies for Recording and Decoding. Edited by H. Eichenbaum and J. Davis, Wiley, NY.
Schoenbaum, G., Chiba, A., and Gallagher, M. (1998) Orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala encode expected outcomes during learning. Nature Neuroscience. 1:155-159.
Eichenbaum, E., Schoenbaum, G., Young, B., and Bunsey, M. (1996) Functional organization of the hippocampal memory system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93:13500-13507.
Eichenbaum, E., Schoenbaum, G., Young, B., and Bunsey, M. (1996) Cortical and Hippocampal Contributions to Declarative Memory. In: Integrative and Molecular Approaches to Brain Function. Edited by M. Ito and Y. Miyashita, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Schoenbaum, G., and H. Eichenbaum. (1995) Information coding in the rodent prefrontal cortex. I. Single-neuron activity in orbitofrontal cortex compared with that in pyriform cortex. J. Nphysiol. 74(2):733-750.
Schoenbaum, G., and H. Eichenbaum. (1995) Information coding in the rodent prefrontal cortex. II. Ensemble activity in orbitofrontal cortex. J. Nphysiol. 74(2):751-762.
Dykstra, L.A., Schoenbaum, G.M., Yarbrough, J., McNutt, R., and K-J. Chang. (1993) A novel delta opioid agonist, BW373U86, in squirrel monkeys responding under a schedule of shock titration. JPET. 267(2):875-882.
Schoenbaum, G.M., Martin, R.J., and D.S. Roane. (1990) Discontinuation of sustained sucrose-feeding aggravates morphine withdrawal. Brain Res. Bull. 24:565-568.
Schoenbaum, G.M., Martin, R.J., and D.S. Roane. (1989) Interactions between sustained sucrose-feeding and opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 34:911-914.