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Milagritos  Tapia

Milagritos Tapia M.D.

Academic Title: Associate Professor
Primary Appointment: Pediatrics
Secondary Appointments: Medicine
Location: HSF2, 480
Phone: (410) 706-5328
Fax: (410) 706-6205

Personal History:

Dr. Tapia received her Bachelor Degree from Cornell University and then attended Cornell University Meidcal College (Weill Cornell Medical College) where she received her M.D. in 1997. She then completed a residency in Pediatrics at Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University. In 2000, she came to the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine where she completed a fellowship in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology. Dr. Tapia then joined hte faculty of the Center for Vaccine Development and has been working primarily at CVD-Mali (Centre pour le Developpement des Vaccins - Mali).

Research Interests:

Dr. Tapia's research focuses primarily on the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases in Mali and the development of vaccines to address these diseases.

Since 2001, she and the team at CVD-Mali, headed by Dr. Samba Sow, have conducted a series of trials of meningococcal A conjugate vaccine under the sponsorship of the Meningitis Vaccine Project and with investigators in the Gambia and Senegal. These studies led to the prequalification of MenAfriVac and, eventually the introduction of this vaccine to the countries of the African meningitis belt. CVD-Mali also participated in a pivotal vaccine trial which demonstrated the efficacy of live, oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotateq) in Africa.

In addition to assisting in the development of these important vaccines, Dr. Tapia and the team at CVD-Mali have described the epidemiology of pediatric infections with Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae. These data have led to the introduction of life-saving vaccines (Hib conjugate vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) into the Malian Expanded Programme on Immunization.

Most recently, Dr. Tapia has been the Principal Investigator of a large vaccine trial to measure the efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine administered to pregnant Malian women in the prevention of influenza in their infants up to 6 months of age.

Clinical Speciality:

  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Traveler's Health


  1. Hutter J, Pasetti MF, Sanogo D, Tapia MD, Sow SO, Levine MM.  Naturally-Acquired and Conjugate Vaccine-induced antibody to Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) polysaccharide in Malian children:  serological assessment of the Hib immunization program in Mali.  Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;86:1026-1031.
  2. Deloria-Knoll M, Feikin DR, Scott JA, O'Brien KL, DeLuca AN, Driscoll AJ, Levine OS; Pneumonia Methods Working Group. Identification and selection of cases and controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54 Suppl 2:S117-23.
  3. Wonodi CB, Deloria-Knoll M, Feikin DR, DeLuca AN, Driscoll AJ, Moïsi JC, Johnson HL, Murdoch DR, O'Brien KL, Levine OS, Scott JA; Pneumonia Methods Working Group and PERCH Site Investigators. Evaluation of risk factors for severe pneumonia in children: the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54 Suppl 2:S124-31.
  4. Tapia MD, Armah G, Breiman RF, Dallas MJ, Lewis KD, Sow SO, Rivers SB, Levine MM, Laserson KF, Feikin DR, Victor JC, Ciarlet M, Neuzil KM, Steele AD. Secondary efficacy endpoints of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against gastroenteritis in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A79-85.
  5. Sow SO, Tapia M, Haidara FC, Ciarlet M, Diallo F, Kodio M, Doumbia M, Dembélé RD, Traoré O, Onwuchekwa UU, Lewis KD, Victor JC, Steele AD, Neuzil KM, Kotloff KL, Levine MM. Efficacy of the oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mali. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A71-8.
  6. Armah GE, Breiman RF, Tapia MD, Dallas MJ, Neuzil KM, Binka FN, Sow SO, Ojwando J, Ciarlet M, Steele AD. Immunogenicity of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in African infants. Vaccine. 2012 Apr 27;30 Suppl 1:A86-93.
  7. Findlow H, Sow S, Borrow R, Tapia M, Haidara FC, Akinsola AK, Idoko OT, Diallo F, Adegbola R, Tang Y, Parulekar V, Chadha H, Mabey L, Holme D, Townsend K, Chaumont J, LaForce M, Kulkarni P, Marchetti E, Viviani S, Hassan-King M, Preziosi MP. Meningococcal Group C and W135 Immunological Hyporesponsiveness in African Toddlers. Clin Vac Imm. 2011 Sep; 18(9): 1492-6.
  8. Sow SO, Okoko B, Diallo A, Viviani S, Borrow R, Carlone G, Tapia M, Akinsola A, Arduin P, Findlow H, Haidara F, Adegbola R, Diop D, Parulekar V, Chaumont J, Martellet L, Diallo F, Idoko O, Tang Y, Plikaytis B, Kulkarni P, Marchetti E, LaForce M, Preziosi M. Immunogenicity and Safety of a New Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine in West Africans. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2293-304.
  9. Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, Dallas MJ, Tapia MD, Feikin DR, Binka FN, Steele AD, Laserson KF, Ansah NA, Levine MM, Lewis K, Coia ML, Attah-Poku M, Ojwando J, Rivers SB, Victor JC, Nyambane G, Hodgson A, Schodel F, Ciarlet M, Neuzil KM. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Lancet. 2010 Aug 21;376(9741):606-14.
  10. Tennant SM, Diallo S, Levy H, Livio S, Sow SO, Tapia M, Fields PI, Mikoleit M, Tamboura B, Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Galen JE, Levine MM. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febirel patients in Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Mar 9;4(3):e621.
  11. Sow SO, Tapia MD, Diallo S, Keita MM, Sylla M, Onwuchekwa U, Pasetti MF, Kotloff KL, Levine MM. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Mali: Impact on Disease Burden and Serologic Correlate of Protection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jun;80(6):1033-8.
  12. Levy H, Diallo S, Tennant SM, Livio S, Sow SO, Tapia M, Fields PI, Mikoleit M, Tamboura B, Kotloff KL, Lagos R, Nataro JP, Galen JE, Levine MM. PCR Method to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B among Salmonella Isolates from the blood of patients with clinical enteric fever. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 May; 46(5):1861-7.