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Thomas M. Scalea
View Curriculum Vitae 

Thomas M. Scalea M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Surgery
Additional Title(s): Francis X. Kelly Professorship in Trauma Surgery; Director, Program in Trauma; Physician-in-Chief, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
Location: STC, T3R35
Phone: (410) 328-8976

Personal History:

Dr. Scalea was born in Rochester, New York in 1951. He received his B.A. with distinction in January 1974 from the University of Virginia and his Medical Degree from the Medical College of Virginia in 1978. After surgery residency in Syracuse, New York, Dr. Scalea completed a trauma and critical care fellowship at the New York Medical College.

In the mid 1980’s, Dr. Scalea became the Director of Critical Care and Trauma at the King’s County Hospital in Brooklyn, New York and built those into nationally recognized services. In 1991, Dr. Scalea founded the Department of Emergency Medicine at King’s County Hospital and SUNY Brooklyn. This occurred after a very well publicized incident of allegations of poor medical care. Dr. Scalea reorganized clinical care and recruited an entire academic faculty. Over three years later, his department was granted an ACGME approved residency training program in emergency medicine on the first attempt

In 1997, Dr. Scalea became the Physician-in-Chief at the University of Maryland R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center. Believing that one must lead by example, he remains a busy clinical surgeon still taking night call. The Program in Trauma encompasses 70 physicians from seven different academic departments in the University of Maryland Baltimore. The nearly 100 bed trauma hospital employs over 300 nurses and a total staff of about 450 people. The Program in Trauma is one of two independent academic homes for faculty. As Director, Dr. Scalea serves at the level of chairman within the school and hospital. As Physician-in-Chief, Dr. Scalea is responsible for clinical care in all medical administrative functions of Shock Trauma. When Dr. Scalea arrived, the Shock Trauma Center admitted approximately 5800 patients. Treatment protocols have been streamlined. Innovative administrative redesign such as the institution of daily discharge planning rounds on all patients in the hospital has decreased length of stay 15%. This year the Shock Trauma will admit over 7700 patients.

Under Dr. Scalea’s leadership, the Program in Trauma has expanded clinical services remarkably. His faculty is now responsible for the bulk of emergency general surgery patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center. His group has built a region-wide critical care program and are now responsible for nine Intensive Care Units and over 100 beds.

Additionally, Dr. Scalea has reorganized both research and education in the Program in Trauma. Dr. Scalea remains a prolific investigator and has recruited an academically outstanding faculty. There is now a Department of Research headed by Dr. Robert Rosenthal with six codified divisions. Shock Trauma investigators report at all important national meetings. Under Dr. Scalea’s leadership, trauma has become a requirement for all third year medical students and is described as one of the best experiences during medical school.

Dr. Scalea has recognized the importance of collaboration in the prehospital phase care. There is now an EMS coordinator’s office with three FTE’s. These individuals organize the important clinical and educational outreach functions of the Shock Trauma Center. Several years ago, Dr. Scalea established the GO Team, a rapid response team consisting of an anesthesiologist, surgeon, critical care medicine specialist, and a certified registered nurse anesthetist. The physician-led GO team is available seven days a week, 24 hours a day. When dispatched, the GO team serves as a specialized component of Maryland’s statewide emergency medical system. Their mission is to expedite critical care interventions in situations where entrapment will delay transport to definitive care. The GO team compliments Maryland’s Statewide EMS System by providing critical care and surgical services that are typically considered beyond the scope of prehospital emergency care.

Research Interests:


U. S. Army, 2007-2009: Early Support of Intracranial Perfusion, Principal Investigator

U. S. Air Force (Bochicchio PI), 2007-2010: Early Aggressive Glycemic Control in Critically Injured Patients, Co-Investigator

NIH/NINDS (Stern PI), 2007-2012: Neurologic Emergencies Treatment Trials (NETT), Co-Investigator

MD Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (Aarabi PI), 2007-2009: Spinal Cord Injury Research Grants, Co-Investigator
ASIA Motor, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Outcome in Central Cord Syndrome

MD Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (Menaker PI), 2007-2009: Spinal Cord Injury Research Grants, Co-Investigator
Does Aggressive Blood Pressure Management after Acute Spinal Cord Injury Improve Functional Outcome?

Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration, 2007-2008: Safety Mobility Initiative Principal Investigator

Wyeth, Inc., 2007: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group study of Intravenous Methylnaltrexone (MOA-728) for the Treatment of Post Operative Ileus, Co-Investigator.

A2005016 (Hu PI), 2006-2008: Department of Defense/SBIR Inovamar, Co-Investigator
Pre-Hospital Trauma Data Collection and Mining

NN-1648 and NN-1711, 2006-2009: Novo Nordisk, Incorporated (Stein PI), Co-Investigator
Recombinant Human Factor VIIa for Control of Traumatic Hemorrhage: A multi-entre randomized prospective trial

1 U01 HL072359-01 (Hess PI),2002-2009: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Co-Investigator
Reducing Mortality from acute hemorrhage in trauma

R01 GM63050-04 (Carlson PI), 2002-2008: NIH/NIGMS, Co-Investigator
Modulation of Neuroendocrine function in sepsis


Selected Recent Publications

Bochicchio GV, Smit PA, Moore R, Bochicchio K, Auwaeter P, Johnson SB, Scalea T, Bartlett JG. Pilot study of a web-based antibiotic decision management guide. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 202:459-467, 2006.

Aarabi B, Hesdorffer D, Ahn E, Aresco C, Scalea TM, Eisenberg HM. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling following severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 104:469-479, 2006.

Carlson DE, Chiu WC, Scalea TM. Cecal ligation and puncture in rats interrupts the circadian rhythms of corticosterone and adrenocorticla responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Critical Care Medicine. 34:1178-1184, 2006.

O’Connor JV, Stein DM, Dutton RP, Scalea TM. Traumatic hemoptysis treated with recombinant human factor VIIa. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 81:1485-1487, 2006.

Haan JM, Scalea TM. Tension pneumopericardium: A case report and a review of the literature. The American Surgeon. 72:330-331, 2006.

Seagull FJ, Xiao Y, Bochicchio GV, Guzzo J, Dutton DP, Sisley A, Joshi M, Standiford HC, Hebden J, Mackenzie CF, Scalea TM. Real video clips make a real difference: Video-based training for improving sterile practices. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting. 2006.

Stein DM, O’Connor JV, Kufera JA, Ho SM, Dischinger PC, Copeland CE, Scalea TM. Risk factors associated with pelvic fractures sustained in motor vehicle collisions involving newer vehicles. Journal of Trauma. 61:21-31, 2006.

Hoover L, Bochicchio GV, Napolitano LM, Joshi M, Bochicchio K, Meyer W, Scalea TM. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and nosocomial infection in trauma. Journal of Trauma. 61:310-317, 2006.

Scalea TM, Stein D. Nonoperative management of liver/spleen injuries. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 21:296-304, 2006.

Bochicchio GV, Joshi M, Bochicchio K, Nehman S, Tracy JK, Scalea TM. Impact of obesity in the critically ill trauma patient: A prospective study. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 203:539-545, 2006.

Scalea TM, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Trauma Foundation, 2006.

Sutton E, Bochicchio GV, Bochicchio K, Rodriguez ED, Henry S, Joshi M, Scalea TM. Long term impact of damage control surgery: A preliminary prospective study. Journal of Trauma. 61:831-836, 2006.

Carlson DE, Nguyen PX, Soane L, Fiedler SM, Fiskum G, Chiu WC, Scalea TM. Hypotensive hemorrhage increases calcium uptake capacity and Bcl-xl content of liver mitochondria. SHOCK. 27:192-198, 2007.

Haan JM, Boswell S, Stein D, Scalea TM. Follow-up abdominal CT is not necessary in low-grade splenic injury. The American Surgeon. 73:13-18, 2007.

Guzzo JL, Bochicchio GV, Henry S, Keller E, Scalea TM. Incarcerated inguinal hernia in the presence of fournier’s gangrene: A novel approach to a complex problem. The American Surgeon. 73:93-95, 2007.

Park JE, Rodriguez ED, Bluebond-Langer R, Bochicchio G, Christy MR, Bochicchio K, Scalea TM. The anteriolateral thigh flap is highly effective for reconstruction of complex lower extremity trauma. Journal of Trauma. 62:162-165, 2007.

Duane T, O’Connor JV, Scalea TM. Thoracic outlet syndrome resulting from traumatic first rib fracture. Journal of Thoracic Surgery. 62:231-233, 2007.

Menaker J, Cushman J, Vermillion JM, Rosenthal R, Scalea TM. Ultrasound diagnosed cardiac tamponade after blunt abdominal trauma – treated with emergency thoracotomy. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 32:99-103, 2007.

McCunn M, Scalea TM. Injury in India. EMRI Journal. 3(1), 2007.

Johnson SB, Lissauer M, Bochicchio GV, Moore R, Cross AS, Scalea TM. Gene expression profiles differentiate between sterile SIRS and early sepsis. Annals of Surgery. 245, 2007.

O’Connor JV, Scalea TM. Retrograde esophageal intubation. American Surgeon. 73:267-270, 2007.

Thomas GO Rhys, Dutton RP, Hemlock B, Stein DM, Hyder M, Shere-Wolfe R, Hess JR, Scalea TM. Thromboembolic complications associated with factor VIIa administration. Journal of Trauma. 62-574-569, 2007.

Aarabi B, Scalea TM, Bochicchio G, McCunn M, Shih D, McQuillan K. Increased intraabdominal, intrathoracic and intracranial pressure after severe brain injury: Multiple compartment syndrome. Journal of Trauma. 62:647-656, 2007.

Rodriguez ED, Rosson GD, Bluebond-langner R, Bochicchio G, Grant MP, Singh NK, Silverman RP, Scalea TM. The utility of the anterolateral thigh donor site in reconstructing the United States trauma patient. Journal of Trauma. 62:892-897, 2007.

Seagull FJ, Xiao Y, Bochicchio GV, Guzzo J, Dutton DP, Sisley A, Joshi M, Standiford HC, Hebden J, Mackenzie CF, Scalea TM. Video-based training increases sterile-technique compliance during central venous catheter insertion-R3. Critical Care Medicine. 35:1302-1306, 2007.

Lissauer ME, Johnson SB, Siuzdak G, Bochicchio G, Whiteford C, Nussbaumer B, Moore R, Scalea TM. Coagulation and complement protein differences between septic and uninfected systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients. Journal of Trauma. 62:1082-1094, 2007.

Baron BJ, Dutton RP, Zehtabchi S, Spanfelner J, Stavile KL, Khodorkovsky B, Nagdev A, Hahn B, Scalea TM. Sublingual capnometry for rapid determination of the severity of hemorrhagic shock. Journal of Trauma. 62:120-124, 2007.

Haan JM, Montgomery S, Novosel TJ, Stein DM, Scalea TM. Chyloperitoneum after blunt abdominal injury. American Surgeon. 73:811-813, 2007.
Haan J, Dutton RP, Willis M, Leone S, Kramer ME, Scalea TM. Discharge rounds in the 80-hour workweek: Importance of the trauma nurse practitioner. Journal of Trauma. 63:339-343, 2007.

Carlson D, Chiu WC, Fiedler SM, Hoffman GE, Scalea TM. Central neural distribution of immonoreactive Fos and CRH in relation to plasma ACTH and corticosterone during sepsis in the rat. Experimental Neurology. 205:485-200, 2007.

Stein DM, York GB, Boswell S, Shanmuganathan K, Haan JM, Scalea TM. Accuracy of computed tomography (CT) scan in the diction of penetrating diaphragm injury. Journal of Trauma. 63:538-543, 2007.

Haan JM, Marmery H, Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Scalea TM. Experience with splenic main coil embolization and significance of new or persistent pseudoaneurym: reembolize, operate or observe. Journal of Trauma. 63:615-619, 2007.

Menaker J, Stein DM, Scalea TM. Incidence of early pulmonary embolism after injury. Journal of Trauma. 63:620-624, 2007.

Haan JM, Bochicchio GV, Scalea TM. Utility of esophageal gastroduodenoscopy at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in trauma patients. World Journal of Emergency Surgery. 2:18, 2007.

Bochicchio GV, Joshi M, Bochicchiio KM, Pyle A, Johnson SB, Meyere W, Lumpkins K, Scalea TM. Early hyperglycemic control is important in critically injured trauma patients. Journal of Trauma. 63:1353-1358, 2007.

Stein DM, O’Toole R, Scalea TM. Multidisciplinary approach for patients with pelvic fractures and hemodynamic instability. Scandinavian Journal of Surgery. 96:272-280, 2007.

Johnson SB, Lissauer ME, Whiteford C, Moore R, Scalea TM. Increased polycythemia rubra vera-1 mRNA expression is associated with sepis and not severity of illness or leukocytosis. Inflammation Research. 56:S105, 2007.

Lissauer ME, Johnson SB, Field C, Whitford C, Nussbaumer W, Scalea TM. IL-1/Tumor necrosis factor receptor gene expression characterizes sepsis in critically ill systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients. Critical Care. 11:P449, 2007.

Bochicchio G, Bochicchio KM, Johnson SB, Joshi M, Pyle A, Scalea TM. Tight glycemic control in critically injured trauma patients. Annals of Surgery. 246, October 2007.

Lumpkins K, Bochicchio GV, Zagol B, Ulloa K, Simard JM, Schaub S, Meyer W, Scalea TM. Plasma levels of the beta chemokine regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) correlate with severe brain injury. Journal of Trauma. 64:358-361, 2008.

Rodriguez ED, Bluebond-Langner R, Silverman R, Bochicchio G, Yao A, Manson P, Scalea TM. Abdominal wall reconstruction following severe loss of domain: The R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center algorithm. In Press. Plast. Reconstr. Surg.

Guzzo JL, Bochicchio GV, Haan J, Johnson SB, Park A, Scalea TM. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the complicated obese patient can be performed safely. In Press. Surgical Endoscopy.

Scalea TM, Habashi NM, Andrews PL. Therapeutic aspects of fat embolism syndrome (ICU), Fat embolism and IM nailing. AO Publishing. In Press.

Szerlip NJ, Bholat O, McCunn MM, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Extracorporeal life support as a treatment for neurogenic pulmonary edema and cardiac failure secondary to intractable intracranial hypertension: a case report and review for the literature. Journal of Trauma. In Press.

Lissauer M, Scalea TM. Expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes is increased prior to the onset of sepsis in critically ill SIRS patients. Critical Care Medicine. In Press.

Carlson D, Chiu WC, Fiedler SM, Hoffman GE, Scalea TM. Central neural distribution of immunoreactive Fos and CRH in relation to plasma ACTH and corticosterone during spies in the rat. Experimental Neurology. In Press.

Bluebond-Langner R, Keifa E, Mithani S, Bochicchio GV, Scalea TM, Rodriguez ED. Recurrent abdominal laxity following interpositional human acellular dermal matrix. Annals of Plastic Surgery. In Press.

Bochicchio G, O’Connor JV, Scalea T. Anterior chest wall lung herniation in the blunt trauma patient. Submitted. Journal of Thoracic Surgery.

McQuay N, Cooper C, Nutter TO, Scalea TM. Determining death in non-heart-beating organ donation. Submitted. Critical Care Medicine.

Moainie SL, Neschis DG, Gammie JS, Brown JM, Poston RS, Scalea TM, Griffith BP. Endovascular stenting for traumatic aortic injury. Submitted.

Claassen CW, O’Connor JV, Gens D, Sikorski R, Scalea TM. Penetrating cardiac injury: Think outside the box. Submitted. Journal of Trauma.

O’Connor JV, Scalea TM. Penetrating great vessel injury: Impact of admission hemodynamics and pre-operative imaging. Submitted. Annals of Thoracic Surgery

Demetriades D, Velmahos G, Scalea TM, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of blunt thoracic aortic injuries; Changing perspectives. Journal of Trauma. In Press.

Kim P, Ludwig S, Poelstra K, Duggan B, Scalea T, Gelb D. Ectopic bone formation in the pelvis after combined anterior and posterior fusion of the spine. Submitted.

Book Chapters 

Goldstein AS, Phillips TF, Sclafani SJA, Scalea TM, Duncan AO. Early open reduction and internal fixation of major pelvic fractures. Eiseman B, Stahlgran L (eds): Cost-Effective Surgical Management. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1987.

Scalea TM, Goldstein AS, Phillips TF. Respiratory problems. Stillman, RM (ed), Surgery: Diagnosis and Therapy. Appleton and Lange, 1989.

Goldstein AS, Phillips TF, Sclafani SJA, Scalea TM. Trauma. Stillman RM (ed), Surgery, Diagnosis and Therapy. Appleton and Lange, 1989.

Sclafani SJA, Atweh NA, Duncan AO, Scalea TM, Glanz S. Interventional radiology for pelvic trauma. Margulis A, Gooding C (eds): Diagnostic Radiology. University of California Printing Services, 1989.

Sclafani SJA, Duncan AO, Scalea TM, Glanz S, Atweh NA. Radiologic management of penetrating neck trauma. Alexander M, Gooding C (eds): Diagnostic Radiology. University of California Printing Services, 1989.

Crandall DL, Herzlinger HE, Cervoni P, Scalea TM, Kral JG. Vasoactive substances in human adipose tissue biopsies. Alihaud G, Guy-Grand B, Lafontan M, Ricquier D (eds): Obesity in Europe 91, London, J Libbey & Co. Ltd., 1989.

Rosenthal RA, Scalea TM. General surgical problems. Katlic M, Schwartenberg (eds): Surgical Management of Elderly Patients. 1990.

Whelen RL, Scalea TM. Colo-rectal trauma. Problems in General Surgery. 1991.

Scalea TM, Henry SM. Inotropes in the ICU. Maull K (ed): Advances in Trauma and Critical Care. Mosby Year Book. 1992.

Scalea TM, Talbert S. Difficult abdominal closures. Morris J, Fallon W, Scalea T (eds): Trauma Quarterly. Raven Press. 1993.

Sclafani SJA, Scalea TM, Duncan AO, Atweh NA. Imaging and intervention. An alternative to laparotomy in abdominal trauma. Margulis A, Gooding C (eds): Diagnostic Radiology. University of California Printing Services, 1993.

Scalea TM, Duncan AO. Initial resuscitation. Fallon W, Scalea T (eds): Trauma Quarterly. Raven Press, 1993.

Scalea TM, Henry SM. Maxillofacial and neck injuries. Mattox K (ed): Complications in Trauma. Churchill Livingstone, 1994.

Boswell S, Scalea TM. Sublingual capnometry: An alternative to gastric tonometry for the management of shock resuscitation. AACN Clinical Issues Advanced Practice in Acute and Critical Care. Volume 14, Number 2, Pg 176-184. May 2003.

Scalea TM, Henry SM. Missed injuries. Ivatury R, Cayten CG (eds): Penetrating Trauma. Williams & Wilkins, 1996.

Scalea TM, Mann R. Emergency department thoracotomy. Morris J, Fallon W, Scalea T (eds): Trauma Quarterly, Raven Press, 1996.

Scalea TM, Kohl L, Duncan AO. Geriatric trauma. Harwood-Nuss A (ed): The Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Lippincott-Raven, 1996.

Scalea TM, Kohl L. Geriatric trauma. Feliciano D, Mattox K, Moore E (eds): Trauma, 3rd Edition. Appleton and Lange, 1996.

Scalea TM, Low RB. Initial management of multiply injured patients. Howell J (ed): Emergency Medicine. WB Saunders, 1998.

Scalea TM, Macchia RM. Trauma to the genitourinary tract. Rackel RE (ed): Conn’s Current Theory. WB Saunders, 1999.

Cooper C, Scalea TM. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Cameron J (ed): Current Surgical Therapy 6th Edition. Mosby, 1999.

Scalea TM, Rodriguez A. Initial surgical care. Carson J, Williamson RECN (eds): Surgery. Mosby, 1999.

Scalea TM, Boswell SA. Abdominal injuries. Tintanalli J (ed): Emergency Medicine Study Guide 2000,. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Baron BJ, Scalea TM. Spinal injuries. Tintanalli J (ed): Emergency Medicine Study Guide 2000. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Euerle BD, Scalea TM. Spinal shock. Tintanalli J (ed): Emergency Medicine Study Guide 2000. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Scalea TM, Burgess AR. Pelvic fractures. Feliciano D, Mattox K, Moore E (eds): Trauma, 4th Edition. Appleton and Lange. McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Mirvis SE, Hastings L, Scalea TM. Diagnostic imaging, angiography and interventional radiology. Feliciano D, Mattox K, Moore E (eds): Trauma, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Scalea TM, Boswell SA. Initial management of traumatic shock. McQuillan K, Flynn MB, Hartsock RL, VonRueden KT, Whalen (eds): Trauma Nursing: From Resuscitation through Rehabilitation. WB Saunders, 2000.

Scalea TM. Resuscitating head and spinal cord injury in Valadka AB, Andrews B (ed): Does it Matter How Head-Injured Patients are Resuscitated? Neurotrauma: Evidence-based Answers to Common Questions. Thieme, 2004.

Demetiades D, Scalea TM. Subclavian artery and vein injuries: Demetriades D, Asensio JA (eds): Surgical Techniques in the Management of Complex Trauma. WB Saunders.

Henry SM, Scalea TM. Gas gangrene of the extremity. Cameron J (ed): Current Surgical Therapy, 7th Edition, Mosby.

Shanamuganathan K, Scalea T. Penetrating torso trauma: The role of imaging in clinical management. Mirvis SE (ed): Imaging in Trauma and Critical Care, 2nd Edition, Harcourt Health Sciences.

Gens D, Scalea TM. A clinical perspective on trauma imaging. Mirvis SE (ed): Imaging in Trauma and Critical Care, 2nd Edition, Harcourt Health Sciences.

Mirvis S, Scalea T. Future considerations for trauma imaging. Mirvis SE (ed): Imaging in Trauma and Critical Care, 2nd Edition, Harcourt Health Sciences.

Scalea TM, Henry SM. Necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections. 58th Edition of Conn’s Current Therapy. WB Saunders. 2:100-103, 2006.

Henry SM, Scalea TM. Pelvic fractures. Morris SE, Mattox KL, Feliciano DV (eds). Trauma 5th Edition. Mc-Graw-Hill.

Scalea TM, Dutton RP. Anesthesia and Emergency Surgery. Emergency Surgery: Principles and Practice.

Scalea TM, Stein D. Trauma to the torso. 2nd Edition of Surgery: Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. Springer-Verlag.

Chiu W, Scalea TM. Diagnostic imaging. Trauma Contemporary Principles and Therapy.

Scalea TM, Menaker J. Emergency department thoracotomy. Current Surgical Therapy, 9th Edition.