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James M. Gold

James M. Gold Ph.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Psychiatry
Location: 701 W. Pratt St., 388 (MPRC)
Phone: (410) 402-7871

Personal History:

PhD, 1986, Clinical Psychology, Institute for Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University.
Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Neuropsychology, 1987, New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, Westchester Division.

Research Interests:

The work of the lab is directed towards increasing understanding of the nature of cognitive and affective abnormalities in schizophrenia using a variety of methods including behavioral, ERPs, eye tracking, and fMRI. Our current work is focused in several areas.

Attention and Working Memory:  This work is done in collaboration with Steve Luck at UC Davis and Andrew Hollingworth at U. Iowa.  Current experiments are directed at understanding the role of executive control processes in the operation of attentional selection and the interaction of working memory and attention.  In past experiments we have found that patients are surprisingly able to use a variety of cues to guide selection for working memory storage.  We are now trying to determine whether top-down attentional control fails when faced by competition from strong bottom-up signals.  In related work, Britta Hahn is exploring the impact of nicotine on aspects of attention.  
We are also interested in the origins of working memory impairment. In recent work we have found that patients have limitations in WM storage capacity without any evidence of accelerated decay or imprecision of working memory representations.

Reinforcement Learning and Motivation:  This work is done in collaboration with Michael Frank at Brown University and John Sweeney and Ellen Herbener at University of Illinois at Chicago.  The goal of this work is to understand the role of reinforcement learning deficits, likely implicating abnormalities of dopamine signaling, in the motivational and decision-making impairments that are characteristic of many patients with the illness. Through the use of computational modeling we hope to develop a highly specific, mechanistic understanding of these impairments.
In recent work we have found that patients appear to have difficulty representing the value of different stimuli and actions, resulting in slowed initial learning, difficulty matching action selection to experienced value, and alterations in decision-making.  Current experiments are designed to determine the degree to which patients learn from positive as opposed to negative feedback, the extent to which these deficits specifically map onto negative symptoms, and whether these processes are altered by the introduction of antipsychotic treatment. Through the use of fMRI, Jim Waltz is examining the neural systems that are implicated in reinforcement learning deficits.  In related work, Greg Strauss is exploring the role of emotional processing deficits in the origins of negative symptoms.

Development of cognitive measurement approaches:  This is a long-standing focus of the lab that has included the development of the letter-number sequencing test that has been incorporated into the Wechsler Scales, the validation of the RBANS as a brief screening test for general level of impairment in schizophrenia, collaboration on the development of the MATRICS battery, and current collaboration with Deanna Barch, Cam Carter, Steve Silverstein, Angus MacDonald, Dan Ragland, Charon Ranganeth, and Steve Dakin on the NIMH supported CNTRACS initiative that is designed to validate measures based in the cognitive neuroscience literature for use in clinical trials.  Work with Dwight Dickinson has included meta-analysis of the clinical neuropsychology literature and the use of structural equation modeling to examine the role of general and specific cognitive deficits in the illness.

Clinical Trials:  In collaboration with Bob Buchanan and others, we have explored the utility of glutamatergic and cholinergic manipulations as add-on treatments targeting cognitive endpoints. There are multiple on-going trials exploring novel mechanisms.  

Genetics:  Our lab is involved with the NIMH supported B-SNIP consortium that includes Guni Thaker, Carol Tamminga, John Sweeney, Godfrey Pearlson, and Matcheri Keshavan.  The goal of the project is to examine intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder.


Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications

Gold J, Randolph C, Carpenter C, Goldberg T, Weinberger T. Forms of memory failure in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1992; 101:487-494.

Gold J, Hermann B, Randolph C, Wyler A, Goldberg T, Weinberger D. Schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy: A neuropsychological analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 1994; 51:265-272.

Gold J, Berman K, Randolph C, Goldberg T, Weinberger D. PET validation of a novel prefrontal task: Delayed Response Alternation. Neuropsychology 1996; 10:3-10.

Gold J, Carpenter C, Randolph C, Goldberg T, Weinberger D. Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1997; 54:159-165.

Bellack AS, Gold JM, Buchanan RW. Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia: Problems, prospects, and strategies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1999; 25:257-274.

Gold, JM, Queern C, Iannone VN, Buchanan RW. The RBANS as a screening test in schizophrenia: I. Sensitivity, reliability and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999; 156:1944-1950.

Gold JM, Rehkemper G, Binks SW, Carpenter CJ, Fleming K, Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR. Learning and forgetting in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2000; 109(3):534-538.

Gold JM, Goldberg RW, McNarySW, Dixon LB, Lehman AF. Cognitive correlates of job tenure among patients with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 2002; 159(8):1395-1402.

Gold, JM, Wilk CM, McMahon RP, Buchanan RW, Luck SJ. Working memory for visual features and conjunctions in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2003; 112(1):61-71.

Wilk CM, Gold JM, McMahon RP, Humber K, Iannone VN, Buchanan RW. No, it is not possible to be schizophrenic yet neuropsychologically normal. Neuropsychology 2005; 19(6):778-786

Luck SJ, Fuller RL, Braun EL, Robinson B, Summerfelt A, Gold JM. The speed of visual attention in schizophrenia: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. Schizophrenia Research 2006; 85(1-3):174-195.

Gold JM, Fuller RL, Robinson BM, McMahon RP. Intact attentional control of working memory encoding in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2006; 115(4):658-673.

Heerey EA, Gold JM. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate dissociation between affective experience and motivated behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2007; 116(2):268-278.

Dickinson D, Ramsey MB, Gold JM. Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 2007; 64(5):532-542.

Cohen AS, Saperstein AM, Gold JM, Kirkpatrick B, Carpenter WT Jr, Buchanan RW. Neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome: new data and meta-analysis of findings to date. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007; 33(5):1201-1212. PMCID:PMC2632354

Waltz JA, Frank MJ, Robinson BM, Gold JM. Selective reinforcement learning deficits in schizophrenia support predictions from computational models of striatal-cortical dysfunction. Biological Psychiatry 2007; 62(7):756-764. PMCID:PMC2083701

Waltz JA, Gold JM. Probabilistic reversal learning impairments in schizophrenia: Further evidence of orbitofrontal dysfunction. Schizophrenia Research 2007; 93(1-3):296-303. PMCID:PMC2063592

Gold JM, Fuller RL, Robinson BM, Braun EL, Luck SJ. Impaired top-down control of visual search in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2007; 94(1-3):148-155. PMCID:PMC1978542

Dickinson D, Gold JM. Less unique variance than meets the eye: Overlap among tradional neuropsychological dimensions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2008; 34(3):423-434. PMCID:PMC2632436

Dickinson D, Ragland JD, Gold JM, Gur RC. General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Goliath defeats David? Biological Psychiatry 2008; 64(9):823-827.
Luck SJ, Gold JM. The construct of attention in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 2008; 64(1):34-39. PMCID:PMC2562029

Heerey EA, Bell-Warren KR, Gold JM. Decision-making impairments in the context of intact reward sensitivity in schizophrenia. . Biological Psychiatry 2008; 64(1):62-69. PMCID:PMC2613513

Gold JM, Waltz JA, Prentice KJ. Morris SE, Heerey EA. Reward processing in schizophrenia: A deficit in the representation of value. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2008; 34(5):835-847. PMCID:PMC2518641

Ceaser AE, Goldberg TE, Egan MF, McMahon RP, Weinberger DR, Gold JM. Set-shifting ability and schizophrenia: A marker of clinical illness or an intermediate phenotype? Biological Psychiatry, 2008; 64(9):782-788.

Luck SJ, Kappenman ES, Fuller RL, Robinson B, Summerfelt A, Gold JM. Impaired response selection in schizophrenia: Evidence from the P3 wave and the lateralized readiness potential. Psychophysiology, 2009; 46(4):776-786. PMCID:PMC2706937

Waltz JA, Schweitzer JB, Gold JM, Kurup PK, Ross TJ, Salmeron BJ, Rose EJ, McClure SM, Stein EA. Patients with schizophrenia have a reduced neural response to both unpredictable and predictable primary reinforcers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2009; 34(6):1567-1577.

Gold JM, Hahn B, Strauss GP, Waltz JA. Turning it upside down: Areas of preserved cognitive function in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology Review, 2009; 19(3):294-311.

Dickinson D, Tenhula W, Morris S, Brown C, Peer J, Spencer K, Li L, Gold MJ, Bellack AS. A randomized, controlled trial of computer-assisted cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010; 167(2):17-180.

Gold JM, Hahn B, Zhang W, Robinson BM, Kappenman ES, Beck VM, Luck SJ. Reduced capacity but spared precision and maintenance of working memory representations in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2010; 67(6):570-577. PMID: 20530006

Hahn B, Kapperman ES, Robinson BM, Fuller RL, Luck SJ, Gold JM. Iconic decay in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2010 Jan 6 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20053864

Longenecker J, Genderson J, Dickinson D, Malley J, Elvevåg B, Weinberger DR, Gold J. Where have all the women gone? Participant gender in epidemiological and non-epidemiological research of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2010 Apr 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Strauss GP, Robinson BM, Waltz JM, Frank MJ, Kasanova Z, Herbener ES, Gold JM. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate inconsistent preference judgments for affective and nonaffective stimuli. Schizophrenia Bulletin, in press. PMID: 20484522

Weiner E, Conley RR, Ball MP, Feldman S, Gold JM, Kelly DL, Wonodi I, McMahon RP, Buchanan RW. Adjunctive Risperidone for partially responsive people with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Neuropsychopharmacology, accepted.

Hahn B, Robinson BM, Kaiser ST, Harvey AN, Beck VM, Leonard CJ, Kappenman ES, Luck SJ, Gold JM. Failure of schizophrenia patients to overcome salient distractors during working memory encoding. Biological Psychiatry 2010 Jun 4 [Epub ahead of print] PMID:

Waltz JA, Frank MJ, Wiecki TV, Gold JM. Altered probabilistic learning and response biases in schizophrenia: behavioral evidence and neurocomputational modeling. Neuropsychology, in press.

Heerey EA, Matveeva TM, Gold JM. Degraded representations of future rewards and events in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, In press

Book Chapters

Gold J, Goldberg T, Kleinman J, Weinberger D.  The effects of symptomatic state and pharmacological treatment on the neuropsychological test performance of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders.  In: E. Mohr & P. Brouwers (Eds) Handbook of Clinical Trials: The Neurobehavioral Approach (pp 185-216), 1991, Swets & Zeitlinger.
Goldberg T, Gold J, Braff D.  Neuropsychological functioning and time-locked information processing in schizophrenia.  In: A. Tasman & S.M. Goldfinger (Eds) Annual Review of Psychiatry, Volume 10 (pp 60-78), 1991, American  Psychiatric Press.
Gold J and Weinberger D.  Frontal lobe structure, function, and connectivity in schizophrenia. In: R. Kerwin, D. Dawbarn, J McCulloch, C Tamminga, (Eds) Neurobiology and Psychiatry (pp 39-60) 1991, Cambridge University Press.

Medalia A and Gold J.  Psychoactive drugs in the psychotic and affective disorders. In: A. Puente & R. McCaffrey (Eds) Handbook of neuropsychological assessment: A Biopsychosocial Perspective (pp 457-484) 1992, Plenum Press.

Gold J and Harvey P.  Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.  Psychiatric Clinics of North America (pp 295-312) 1993.

Weinberger D, Berman K, Gold J, Goldberg T.  Neural mechanisms of future-oriented processes: In vivo physiological studies of humans.  In: M. Haith, J. Benson, R. Roberts, B. Pennington (Eds)  The Development of Future-oriented Processes (pp 221-242), 1994, University of Chicago Press.

Goldberg T, Gold JNeurocognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia: An overview. In: D. Kupfer & F. Bloom (Eds) Psychopharmacology: A Fourth Generation of Progress (pp 1245-1257), 1995, Raven Press.

Goldberg T, Gold J.  Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In: S. Hirsch & D. Weinberger (Eds) Schizophrenia (pp 146-162), 1995, Blackwell Scientific.

Blyler CR, Gold J.  Cognitive effects of typical antipsychotic treatment: another look.  In:  T. Sharma & P. Harvey (Eds) Cognition in Schizophrenia: Impairments, Importance and Treatment Strategies (pp 241-265), 2000, Oxford University Press.

Gold JM. Neurocognitive deficits as treatment targets in schizophrenia.  In: E. Sacchetti & P. Spano (Eds) Novel Antipsychotics: Facts and Promises at the Turn of the Millennium (pp 15-23), 2000, Excerpta Medica.
Goldberg TE, David A, Gold JM.  Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia.  In:  S.R. Hirsch & D.R. Weinberger (Eds) Schizophrenia (pp 168-184), 2003, Blackwell Science, Ltd.
Gold JM, Green MF.  Schizophrenia: cognition.  In:  B.J. Sadock & V.A. Sadock (Eds) Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, Eighth Edition, Volume I (pp 1426-1448), 2005, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dickinson D, Gold JM.  Processing speed and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test in Schizophrenia.  In:  J. DeLuca & J. Kalmar (Eds) Information Processing Speed in Clinical Populations, (pp125-152), 2008 . Taylor and Francis