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Cinthia  Drachenberg
View Curriculum Vitae 

Cinthia Drachenberg M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Pathology
Additional Title(s): Director Electron Microscopy Laboratory
Location: UMMC, NBW49
Phone: (410) 328-5560
Fax: (410) 328-5508

Personal History:


1975: B.S., River Plate College, Entre Rios, Argentina, Biological Sciences
1982: M.D., National University of the Northeast, Corrientes, Argentina, Surgery


1987-1991: Pathology Resident, Univ. of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
1989-1991: Chief Resident, Pathology, Univ. of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
1991-1992: Surgical Pathology Fellowship, University of Maryland Hospital, with concurrent Renal Pathology Elective, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC

Research Interests:

Solid Organ Transplantation (Kidney, Pancreas, Liver), Acute Rejection, Chronic Rejection and Recurrence of Primary Diseases, Viral Infections in Organ Transplants

Grant Support:


Dr. Drachenberg (GI Supervisor; 2.5%; PI Dr. R. Jones, P.I.)
NCI NO2-RC-57004-21
"A Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human Tissues and Cells from Donors with an Epidemiological Profile"
Total Directs Awarded: $2,909,338

Dr. Drachenberg (Collaborator, 5%; PI Dr. Agnes Azimzadeh)
"Immunomodulation for Kidney Allograft Tolerance"
Annual Direct Costs: $450,000
Total  Direct Costs: $2,250,000
Dr. Drachenberg (Co-investigator, 5%; PI Dr. Abdolreza Haririan)
"Thiazolidinediones, PPAR-gamma Agonists, Improve Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Diabetics by Reducing the Risk of Chronic Allograft Hephropathy"
American Diabetes Assoc.
Annual Direct Costs: $173,913
Total  Direct Costs: $521,739


In press

Rubio, L., et al., A multiplex real-time PCR method for quantification of BK and JC polyomaviruses in renal transplant patients. Diagn Mol Pathol. 19(2): p. 105-11.

Drachenberg, C.B. and J.C. Papadimitriou, "Now you see it, now you don't": morphologic variability is a confounder in chronic rejection/graft sclerosis. Transplantation. 89(8): p. 1040.

de Kort, H., et al., Pancreas Allograft Biopsies with Positive C4d Staining and Anti-Donor Antibodies Related to Worse Outcome for Patients. Am J Transplant.

Tervaert, T.W., et al., Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 21(4): p. 556-63.

Khurana, S., et al., Scopolamine treatment and muscarinic receptor subtype-3 gene ablation augment azoxymethane-induced murine liver injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 333(3): p. 639-49.

Milicevic, N.M., et al., Stereologic analysis of tissue compartments of gunshot-injured and blunt-injured spleen. Pathol Oncol Res. 16(1): p. 69-73.

Munivenkatappa, R., et al., Tubular epithelial cell and podocyte apoptosis with de novo sirolimus based immunosuppression in renal allograft recipients with DGF. Histol Histopathol. 25(2): p. 189-96.

Sis, B., et al., Banff '09 meeting report: antibody mediated graft deterioration and implementation of Banff working groups. Am J Transplant. 10(3): p. 464-71.

Selected Recent Publications (See CV for complete listing)

Kelley, W.E., et al., Washing platelets in neutral, calcium-free, Ringer's acetate. Transfusion, 2009. 49(9): p. 1917-23.

Nguyen, V., et al., TRAIL, DR4 and DR5 are upregulated in kidneys from patients with lupus nephritis and exert proliferative and proinflammatory effects. Clin Immunol, 2009. 132(1): p. 32-42.

Tavora, F., et al., Quantitation of T lymphocytes in posttransplant transbronchial biopsies. Hum Pathol, 2009. 40(4): p. 505-15.

Barth, R.N., et al., Prolonged survival of composite facial allografts in non-human primates associated with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Transplantation, 2009. 88(11): p. 1242-50.

Haririan, A., et al., Positive cross-match living donor kidney transplantation: longer-term outcomes. Am J Transplant, 2009. 9(3): p. 536-42.

Manitpisitkul, W., et al., Maintenance immunosuppressive agents as risk factors for BK virus nephropathy: a case-control study. Transplantation, 2009. 88(1): p. 83-8.

Wolff, J.H., E.M. Goldberg, and C.B. Drachenberg, Large solitary rectal ulcer as a complication of prostate brachytherapy. Gastrointest Endosc, 2009. 70(2): p. 389-90; discussion 390.

Munivenkatappa, R.B., et al., Interacinar c4d staining in pancreas allografts. Transplantation, 2009. 88(1): p. 145-6.

Haririan, A., et al., The impact of c4d pattern and donor-specific antibody on graft survival in recipients requiring indication renal allograft biopsy. Am J Transplant, 2009. 9(12): p. 2758-67.

Melis, M., et al., Full thickness transanal re-excision following endoscopic removal of malignant rectal polyps. Int J Colorectal Dis, 2009. 24(5): p. 531-6.

Nogueira, J.M., et al., The detrimental effect of poor early graft function after laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy on graft outcomes. Am J Transplant, 2009. 9(2): p. 337-47.

Ramos, E., et al., The decade of polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy: state of affairs. Transplantation, 2009. 87(5): p. 621-30.

Barth, R.N., et al., Antibody-mediated rejection of renal allograft in combined liver-kidney transplant. Clin Transplant, 2009.

Gosert, R., et al., Polyomavirus BK with rearranged noncoding control region emerge in vivo in renal transplant patients and increase viral replication and cytopathology. J Exp Med, 2008. 205(4): p. 841-52.

Munivenkatappa, R.B., et al., The Maryland aggregate pathology index: a deceased donor kidney biopsy scoring system for predicting graft failure. Am J Transplant, 2008. 8(11): p. 2316-24.

Raufman, J.P., et al., Genetic ablation of M3 muscarinic receptors attenuates murine colon epithelial cell proliferation and neoplasia. Cancer Res, 2008. 68(10): p. 3573-8.

Carter-Monroe, N.L., et al., A comparison of the diffusion of two innovations -- a pilot study: telemicroscopy versus teleradiology. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 2008: p. 891.

Hitti, W.A., et al., Cholesterol embolization syndrome induced by thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 2008. 8(1): p. 27-34.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Banff schema for grading pancreas allograft rejection: working proposal by a multi-disciplinary international consensus panel. Am J Transplant, 2008. 8(6): p. 1237-49.

Cendales, L.C., et al., The Banff 2007 working classification of skin-containing composite tissue allograft pathology. Am J Transplant, 2008. 8(7): p. 1396-400.

Solez, K., et al., Banff 07 classification of renal allograft pathology: updates and future directions. Am J Transplant, 2008. 8(4): p. 753-60.

Cheng, K., et al., Acetylcholine release by human colon cancer cells mediates autocrine stimulation of cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2008. 295(3): p. G591-7.

Hitti, W., et al., Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a renal allograft associated with xanthogranulomatous diverticulitis: report of the first case and review of the literature. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2007. 22(11): p. 3344-7.

Kanner, W.A., et al., Urethral stromal tumor with pacemaker cell phenotype. Ultrastruct Pathol, 2007. 31(1): p. 63-71.

Alexiev, B.A., C.B. Drachenberg, and A.P. Burke, Thymomas: a cytological and immunohistochemical study, with emphasis on lymphoid and neuroendocrine markers. Diagn Pathol, 2007. 2: p. 13.

Drachenberg, C.B. and J.C. Papadimitriou, Spectrum of histopathological changes in pancreas allograft biopsies and relationship to graft loss. Transplant Proc, 2007. 39(7): p. 2326-8.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Polyomavirus BK versus JC replication and nephropathy in renal transplant recipients: a prospective evaluation. Transplantation, 2007. 84(3): p. 323-30.

Alexiev, B.A., C.B. Drachenberg, and J.C. Papadimitriou, Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas: grading, tumor size and proliferation index do not predict malignant behavior. Diagn Pathol, 2007. 2: p. 28.

Selaru, F.M., et al., Electronic clinical challenges and images in GI. Fibrolamellar carcinoma. Gastroenterology, 2007. 133(5): p. e1-3.

Wali, R.K., et al., Early withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors and rescue immunosuppression with sirolimus-based therapy in renal transplant recipients with moderate to severe renal dysfunction. Am J Transplant, 2007. 7(6): p. 1572-83.

Solez, K., et al., Banff '05 Meeting Report: differential diagnosis of chronic allograft injury and elimination of chronic allograft nephropathy ('CAN'). Am J Transplant, 2007. 7(3): p. 518-26.

Singh, H.K., et al., Urine cytology findings of polyomavirus infections. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2006. 577: p. 201-12.

Drachenberg, C.B. and J.C. Papadimitriou, Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy: update in diagnosis. Transpl Infect Dis, 2006. 8(2): p. 68-75.

Hirsch, H.H., et al., Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplantation: critical issues of screening and management. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2006. 577: p. 160-73.

Peng, H.Q., et al., Liver metastases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism diagnosed by EUS FNA cytology: a case report with emphasis on FNA cytological findings. Cytojournal, 2006. 3: p. 29.

Semple, K., J. Lovchik, and C. Drachenberg, Identification of polyoma BK virus in kidney transplant recipients by shell vial cell culture assay and urine cytology. Am J Clin Pathol, 2006. 126(3): p. 444-7.

Drachenberg, C.B., J.C. Papadimitriou, and E. Ramos, Histologic versus molecular diagnosis of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy: a shifting paradigm? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2006. 1(3): p. 374-9.

Chan-Tack, K.M., et al., Acute renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria due to amyloidosis in an HIV-infected patient. Am J Med Sci, 2006. 332(6): p. 364-7.

El-Asady, R., et al., TGF-{beta}-dependent CD103 expression by CD8(+) T cells promotes selective destruction of the host intestinal epithelium during graft-versus-host disease. J Exp Med, 2005. 201(10): p. 1647-57.

Crowder, C.D., et al., Successful outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a renal transplant patient. Am J Transplant, 2005. 5(5): p. 1151-8.

Hirsch, H.H., et al., Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplantation: interdisciplinary analyses and recommendations. Transplantation, 2005. 79(10): p. 1277-86.

Ramos, E. and C. Drachenberg, Polyomavirus nephropathy. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2005. 16(4): p. 514-9.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Polyomavirus disease in renal transplantation: review of pathological findings and diagnostic methods. Hum Pathol, 2005. 36(12): p. 1245-55.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Negative impact of human leukocyte antigen matching in the outcome of polyomavirus nephropathy. Transplantation, 2005. 80(2): p. 276-8.

Aggarwal, M., et al., The efficacy of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for right ventricular biopsy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 2005. 18(11): p. 1208-12.

Wali, R.K., et al., Effect of kidney transplantation on left ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2005. 45(7): p. 1051-60.

Yuan, R., et al., Critical role for CD103+CD8+ effectors in promoting tubular injury following allogeneic renal transplantation. J Immunol, 2005. 175(5): p. 2868-79.

Xie, G., et al., Cholinergic agonist-induced pepsinogen secretion from murine gastric chief cells is mediated by M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2005. 289(3): p. G521-9.

Kasamon, K.M., et al., Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: atypical presentation in the setting of chronic graft versus host disease: case report and review of the literature. Haematologica, 2005. 90(3): p. ECR17.

Ramos, E., et al., Retransplantation in patients with graft loss caused by polyoma virus nephropathy. Transplantation, 2004. 77(1): p. 131-3.

Regev, A., et al., Reliability of histopathologic assessment for the differentiation of recurrent hepatitis C from acute rejection after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl, 2004. 10(10): p. 1233-9.

Crosse, K., et al., Racial differences in liver inflammation and fibrosis related to chronic hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004. 2(6): p. 463-8.

Nahar, A., et al., Pyelonephritis and acute renal failure. Am J Med Sci, 2004. 328(2): p. 121-3.

Gobert, A.P., et al., Protective role of arginase in a mouse model of colitis. J Immunol, 2004. 173(3): p. 2109-17.

Kennedy, A.S., et al., Pathologic response and microdosimetry of (90)Y microspheres in man: review of four explanted whole livers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2004. 60(5): p. 1552-63.

Drachenberg, C.B. and J.C. Papadimitriou, The inflamed pancreas transplant: histological differential diagnosis. Semin Diagn Pathol, 2004. 21(4): p. 255-9.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Improved outcome of polyoma virus allograft nephropathy with early biopsy. Transplant Proc, 2004. 36(3): p. 758-9.

Buckles, E.L., et al., Identification and characterization of a novel uropathogenic Escherichia coli-associated fimbrial gene cluster. Infect Immun, 2004. 72(7): p. 3890-901.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Histological patterns of polyomavirus nephropathy: correlation with graft outcome and viral load. Am J Transplant, 2004. 4(12): p. 2082-92.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., Histological findings in "incidental" intraoperative pancreas allograft biopsies. Transplant Proc, 2004. 36(3): p. 780-1.
Xie, X.Y., et al., Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: update. Arkh Patol, 2004. 66(2): p. 36-40.

Drachenberg, C., et al., Cost efficiency in the prospective diagnosis and follow-up of polyomavirus allograft nephropathy. Transplant Proc, 2004. 36(10): p. 3028-31.

Arluk, G.M., C. Drachenberg, and P. Darwin, Colonic cystic lymphangioma. Gastrointest Endosc, 2004. 60(1): p. 98.

Wali, R.K., et al., BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal allograft recipients: rescue therapy by sirolimus-based immunosuppression. Transplantation, 2004. 78(7): p. 1069-73.

Armand, R., et al., Adrenal cortical adenoma with excess black pigment deposition, combined with myelolipoma and clinical Cushing's syndrome. Int J Surg Pathol, 2004. 12(1): p. 57-61.

Haririan, A., et al., Polyomavirus reactivation in native kidneys of pancreas alone allograft recipients. Transplantation, 2003. 75(8): p. 1186-90.

Papadimitriou, J.C., et al., Histological grading of chronic pancreas allograft rejection/graft sclerosis. Am J Transplant, 2003. 3(5): p. 599-605.

Papadimitriou, J.C., et al., Histologic features of mycophenolate mofetil-related colitis: a graft-versus-host disease-like pattern. Int J Surg Pathol, 2003. 11(4): p. 295-302.

Drachenberg, C.B., et al., BK polyoma virus allograft nephropathy: ultrastructural features from viral cell entry to lysis. Am J Transplant, 2003. 3(11): p. 1383-92.

Li, X., et al., Visualization of Proteus mirabilis within the matrix of urease-induced bladder stones during experimental urinary tract infection. Infect Immun, 2002. 70(1): p. 389-94.

Haririan, A., et al., Polyomavirus nephropathy in native kidneys of a solitary pancreas transplant recipient. Transplantation, 2002. 73(8): p. 1350-3.

Klassen, D.K., et al., Pancreas allograft biopsy: safety of percutaneous biopsy-results of a large experience. Transplantation, 2002. 73(4): p. 553-5.

Hankey, K.G., et al., MIC expression in renal and pancreatic allografts. Transplantation, 2002. 73(2): p. 304-6.

Nikitakis, N.G., C.B. Drachenberg, and J.C. Papadimitriou, MDM2 and CDK4 expression in carcinosarcoma of the esophagus: comparison with squamous cell carcinoma and review of the literature. Exp Mol Pathol, 2002. 73(3): p. 198-208.

Lustberg, A.M., et al., Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for intractable diarrhea caused by pneumatosis coli. Gastrointest Endosc, 2002. 56(6): p. 935-7.


Drachenberg, C.B., Papadimitriou, J.C., & Klassen, D.K. Pathology of Kidney Allografts. In: Weir, M.R. (Ed.). Medical Management of Kidney Transplantation. Chapter 31. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, p. 473-484, 2005.

Singh, H.K., Bubendorf, L., Mihatsch, M.J., Drachenberg, C.B., & Nickeleit, V. Urine cytology findings of polyomavirus infections. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 577:201-12, 2006

Hirsch HH, Drachenberg CB, Steiger J, Ramos E. Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplantation: critical issues of screening and management. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;577:160-73.