Dr. Cross is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Geographic Medicine and is Associate Director for Adjuvant Biology Research at the Center for Vaccine Development where he also is Chief of the Innate Immunity and Adjuvants Section. Dr. Cross is a graduate of Harvard College (1966) and the University of Pennsylavania School of Medicine (1970). Following training in internal medicine(Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's and Harvard medical Service, boston City Hospital) and infectious diseases (Strong memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY) , Dr. Cross entered active duty in the U.S. Army at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where he remained for twenty years (1974-1994). He developed vaccines for Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and E. coli) as well as immune globulin enriched in antibodies against Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. Each of the vaccines progressed through phase I studies. Dr. Cross became Chief of the Department of Bacterial Diseases where he directed clinical studies on meningococcal and gonococcal infections as well as research on biodefense. After his retirement from the Army in 1994, he became Director of the Program in Infectious Diseases at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center and member of the attending staff of the Division of Infectious Diseases. In 2003 he joined the Center for Vaccine Development where he is Chief of the Section on Adjuvant Biology and Innate Immunity Dr. Cross directed the Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program at the University of Maryland for two years, has served two rotations on the Anti-infective Drug Advisory Committee of the FDA, numerous ad hoc study sections for the NIAID and Department of Defense, an advisory committee for meningococcal vaccines at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and on many data safety and monitoring committees for clinical studies sponsored by industry and the NIH. In 2010 he served on a committee of the National Academy of Sciences that examined the Special Immunizations Program for Biodefense, a program that has provided vaccines for laboratory workers. He has been a program coordinator for the Middle Atlantic Regional Centers for Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infections. A recent president of the International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society, Dr. Cross was elected Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 2010. Dr. Cross has authored 186 peer-reviewed papers, 221 abstracts, 44 book chapters and has been issued 8 patents for his discoveries.
Dr. Cross has three major areas of interest: the development of a vaccine for the prevention and treatment of sepsis; novel interventions for biodefense and the role of sialic acid in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. A previous phase I study with a detoxified endotoxin vaccine complexed to group B meningococcal outer membrane protein revealed that while the vaccine was well-tolerated, it was only weakly immunogenic. Currently, preclinical studies in murine models as well as clinical studies in human subjects are continuing with this vaccine given in conjunction with novel adjuvants. The vaccine has been used to prepare bovine colostrum enriched in anti-endotoxin antibodies for use in "leaky gut" syndromes. In addition to developing vaccines against biodefense and emerging infectious agents, Dr. Cross is studying how peptides that antagonize co-stimulatory pathways may ameliorate viral and bacterial infections. Finally, his laboratory found that the sialidase (neuraminidase) activity of various host cells in the immune system is an essential element of innate and adaptive immunity. Currently the laboratory is focusing on the mechanisms by which human neutrophil sialidase regulates cellular trafficking in both in vivo and in vitro model systems. These studies rely on endothelial cell culture systems as well as murine models of inflammation, including acute lung injury.
Lab Techniques and Equipment:
Animal models of infection; glycobiology techniques