1975-1982 Medical College of Wisconsin
1982-1985 Resident, Internal Medicine
Mayo Graduate School of Medicine
1985-1988 Fellow, Infectious Diseases
Stanford University School of Medicine
Academic Awards and Distinctions
1974: Magna Cum Laude
1977: Heritage Bank Student Research Fellowship
1979-1982: Scholar of the Insurance Medical Scientist Scholarship Fund
1982: Sandoz Student Research Award, Medical College of Wisconsin
1987-1988: Post-Doctoral Award Recipient, American Cancer Society
1990-1993: Burroughs Wellcome Young Investigator Award, Infectious Disease Society of America
1990-1994: Career Development Award, Veterans Administration
2000-present: Member, American Mensa
2003: Researcher of the Year Award, Interstitial Cystitis Association
2006: Teaching Commendation (HDID), Class of 2009, University of Maryland School of Medicine
2007: IC Advocate of the Year Award, Interstitial Cystitis Association
Our laboratory discovered an anti-proliferative factor (APF) that is a sialoglycopeptide inhibitor of bladder epithelial cell proliferation secreted specifically by bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis (IC), a disorder commonly associated with denudation or thinning of the bladder epithelium. APF was discovered to be the active factor in urine from IC patients that reversibly inhibited the growth of bladder epithelial cells in vitro. The specificity of APF for urine from IC patients (vs. normal controls or patients with a variety of other urogenital disorders) indicates that it may be useful as a diagnostic marker for IC and that it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. APF is the first naturally occurring, low molecular weight negative growth regulator to have been identified and completely characterized. The peptide sequence of APF is identical to residues 541–549 of the 6th transmembrane domain of frizzled 8, a Wnt ligand receptor. The glycosyl moiety of APF consists of sialic acid a-2,3 linked to galactose b1–3-N-acetylgalactosamine, which is a-O-linked to the N-terminal threonine of the peptide.
We recently identified a functional receptor for APF on bladder epithelial cells (CKAP4) and are now determining the role of this receptor in mediating APF activity in both normal bladder epithelial cells and uroepithelial carcinomas. Our lab is also attempting to identify substances that inhibit APF production or activity as potential therapies for IC. In collaboration with investigators at the NCI, we are testing various synthetic APF congeners to learn more about structural requirements for activity, with the goal of developing low molecular weight inhibitors of APF activity and urologic carcinoma proliferation.
I am also the local Principal Investigator for the multicenter Shingles Prevention Study (VA Cooperative Study #403), a trial of varicella zoster vaccine for the prevention of shingles and associated complications in persons 60 years of age and older. The currently available shingles vaccine became licensed as a result of findings during the first 6 years of this trial. The Baltimore VA site is now performing long-term follow-up of vaccinees to determine the durability of protection.