Dr. Anindo Roy is an Assistant Professor of Neurology in the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, the Chief Robotics Engineer at the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research & Development (VA RR&D) Maryland Exercise and Robotics Center of Excellence, and an adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Maryland at College Park. "Dr. Roy is an MIT-trained engineering researcher and has held prestigious postdoctoral fellowships at Georgia Institute of Technology and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His research at Georgia Tech focused on studying neuro-mechanical influences on muscle coordination during balance and locomotion with the overall goal to better characterize and model normal and impaired performance of fundamental motor tasks. At MIT, he was instrumental in furthering engineering design and development of a novel ankle robot (“Anklebot”). Since assuming his current position in 2009, his work has included development of novel Anklebot-assisted seated training interventions as well as control algorithms for treadmill-based and over ground locomotor training.
Dr. Roy’s overarching research interests are twofold: first, to better understand the neuro-mechanics of pathological human gait and second, to develop and implement novel lower extremity (LE) robotic technology for rehabilitation of gait and mobility function in neurologically disabled populations. Over the past six years, he has spearheaded the engineering development and clinical evaluation of the world’s 1st impedance-controlled ankle robot module. His research at MERCE has demonstrated that performance-based, progressive seated Anklebot training improves paretic ankle motor control and reduces ankle impairment that lead to gains in key elements of overground gait function, in both chronic and early sub-acute stroke.
Dr. Roy’s present research focuses on a number of pre-clinical engineering research directions:
- development and clinical testing of a novel event-triggered, gait sub-task, deficit adjusted adaptive control system for using the Anklebot for TM-based gait training in chronic stroke. His unique control approach has successfully linked robotic support to specific functional deficits of hemiparetic gait in a manner that prevents destabilization and enables customized therapy to individual gait deficit profiles and calibration with motor learning across intervention, allowing intelligent robots to teach the central nervous system to durably learn/re-learn motor tasks;
- using the adaptive control system to train more ecological activities of daily life (ADL) mobility functions including Anklebot-assisted over ground gait, staircase ascend/descend, controlled turns and navigation, balance tasks, among others;
- development of the next-generation of co-operative neuro-robotics with Artificial Intelligence (AI) machine learning-based adaptive controllers that will be capable of intelligently interacting with the human and environment to optimize neuro-motor and functional recovery in stroke;
- development of portable, battery operated untethered Anklebot module that is lightweight using smart material alloys. These engineering advances will, in the near future, create a “robotic gym” and provide clinicians and therapists a “suite” of task-specific adaptive controllers that enable and facilitate human-robot cooperative learning of specific functional ADL mobility tasks.
Dr. Roy has published more than thirty four scientific articles in high-impact peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, and book chapters in a wide range of areas including human biomechanics, biological control systems, rehabilitation robotics, neurophysiology, and neurorehabilitation. Dr. Roy’s research has been widely reported in the media, both print and television, including the VA Research Currents, Yahoo News, Baltimore’s Fox 45 news, to name a few.
In collaboration with senior UMB-SOM, UMROI and MERCE investigators, Drs. Macko and Forrester, Dr. Roy’s current research trajectory is moving towards the following projects that by no means, are all inclusive:
- Modification to the established event-triggered, gait sub-task, deficit adjusted adaptive control system for using the Anklebot to train more ecological activities of daily life (ADL) mobility functions including over ground gait, staircase ascend/descend, controlled turns and navigation, balance tasks, among others;
- Development of the next-generation of co-operative neuro-robotics with Artificial Intelligence (AI) machine learning-based adaptive controllers that will be capable of intelligently interacting with the human and environment to optimize neuro-motor and functional recovery in stroke. These controllers are based on a unique neuro-motor input-multiple output (NIMO) model that utilizes real-time human performance to auto-adjust training inputs including task difficulty and Anklebot support;
- Development of portable, battery operated untethered Anklebot module that is lightweight using smart material alloys;
- Development of portable smart vision systems integrated into the Anklebot (“Anklebot with eyes”) to facilitate deployment of a portable biomechanics lab into the community.
Lab Techniques and Equipment:
Dr. Roy’s research is conducted at two sites:
- The VA RR&D Maryland Exercise & Robotics Center of Excellence (MERCE), directed by Dr. Richard Macko. This includes a collaborative network of 26 regional faculty investigators primarily based at the VA Maryland health Care System (VAHMCS). The full resources of the VA RR&D MERCE including 2 new VA Maryland Exercise and Robotics Research Buildings representing ~30,000 ft2 dedicated clinical rehabilitation research space. The Baltimore VA Medical Center (VAMC) Annex Labs are each fully equipped with lower extremity robotics suites that are integrated into our Biomechanics laboratories to meet the full needs of current and future projects. Specifically, within MERCE Dr. Roy conducts his research in the Human Motor Performance Laboratory (HMPL). The HMPL is directed by Dr. Larry Forrester and is located in the new VA Annex Facility near the downtown Baltimore Medical Center.
- HMPL Resources and Equipment: The HMPL is a dedicated 2000 ft2 space and houses the following state-of-the-art gait biomechanics rehabilitation and assessment equipment: 4-VA/MIT Anklebots with controllers, computer work stations and training stations equipped with video feedback; an Optotrak infrared 3-D motion tracking and analysis system with two sensor banks; 32 channel A-to-D system integrated with Optotrak; an 8-camera Vicon/Motion Monitor system for 3D motion analysis coupled with 16 channels of A/D; 2 Bertec force platforms in a custom-built raised walkway; a 26-ft. GaitRite instrumented walkway for spatio-temporal analysis of gait; Myopac 8-channel indwelling and surface EMG system with footswitch synchronization modules; Noraxon 12-channel tethered EMG system; 5 additional computer work stations are located within the lab area for data processing; 2 DataPac2K2 16-channel analog-to-digital signal collection systems including computer boards and post-processing software; LabView and Matlab data acquisition and signal analysis software; portable force transducers with amplifiers for varied load ranges and axial orientations; Biodex rehabilitation treadmill with body weight/safety support system; 64 channel Brain Vision EEG system with 3 pre-amplified electrode caps; 64 Channel Neuroscan EEG system with SynAmps and STIM modules, workbench with tools for electronics, fabrication and equipment repairs; patient waiting area; desk space for research assistants, full network connectivity with VA firewall protection. In addition there are 5 offices and a video-networked conference room available for broadcast of meetings of off-site meetings.
- University of Maryland Rehabilitation and Orthopedics Institute (UMROI) that has a robotics research suite consisting of 1 Anklebot. Between UMROI and VA-HMPL, there are 5 Anklebot modules dedicated to research and available for clinical service.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Macko, N.R., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Facilitating Push-Off Propulsion: A Biomechanical Model for Ankle Robotics Assistance for Plantarflexion Gait Training, IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics & Biomechatronics,São Paulo, Brazil, 2014 (In-Press).
- Goodman, R.N., Roy, A., Rietschel, J.C., Balasubramanian, S., Forrester, L.W., C.T. Bever. Ankle Robotics Training with Concurrent Psychophysiological Monitoring in Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report, IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics & Biomechatronics,São Paulo, Brazil, 2014 (In-Press).
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Krywonis, A., Kehs, G., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Modular ankle robotics in early sub-acute stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study, Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 2014 (OnlineFirst – February 10, 2014). DOI: 10.1177/1545968314521004.
- Goodman, R.N., Rietschel, J.C., Roy, A., Jung, B.C., Diaz, J., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Increased motivation during ankle robotic training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in chronic hemiparetic stroke, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 51(2): 213-228, 2014.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Barton, J.E., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Anklebot-Assisted Locomotor Training After Stroke: A Novel Deficit-Adjusted Control Approach, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2175-2182, 2013. DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2013.6630869
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Goodman, R.N., Rietschel, J.C., Barton, J.E., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Clinical application of a modular ankle robot for stroke rehabilitation, NeuroRehabilitation, 33(1):85-97, 2013. PMID 23949045.
- Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F., Krebs, H.I. Changes in passive ankle stiffness and its effects on gait function in people with chronic stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 50(4):555-72, 2013. PMID 23934875.
- *Krebs, H.I., Roy, A., Artemiadis, P.K., Ahn, J., Hogan, N. Beyond Human or Robot Administered Treadmill Training. In: Neurorehabilitation Technology, Dietz V., Rymer W.Z., & Nef T., Editors. 233-52, Springer, 2012. ISBN: 1447122763. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2277-7_14.
- McGehrin, K., Roy, A., Goodman, R., Rietschel, J., Forrester, L., Bever, C. Ankle robotics training in Sub-acute stroke survivors: concurrent within-session changes in ankle motor control and brain electrical activity. Neurology, 78:530, 2012.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Bever, C.T., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F., Hogan. Measurement of passive ankle stiffness in subjects with chronic hemiparesis using a novel ankle robot. Journal of Neurophysiology, 105(5):2132-49, 2011. PMID 21346215.
- Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F. Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 48(4):417-30, 2011. PMID 21674391.
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Ankle training with a robotic device improves hemiparetic gait after a stroke. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 25(4):369-77, 2011. PMID 21115945.
- Khanna, I., Roy, A., Rodgers, M.M., Macko, R.F., Krebs, H.I., Forrester, L.W. Effects of unilateral robotic limb loading on gait characteristics in subjects with chronic stroke. Journal of NeuroEngineering & Rehabilitation, 7(23), 2010 (Highly accessed article). PMID 20492698.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Williams, D.J., Bever, C.T., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F, Hogan, N. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: a robot for ankle rehabilitation. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 25(3):569-82, 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2009.2019783.
- Iqbal, K. Roy, A. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation of a multi-segment biomechanical model. ASME Transactions on Biomechanical Engineering, 131(1):011002, 2009 (top 10 most downloaded article – December, 2008; May, 2009). PMID 19045918.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Patterson, S.L., Judkins, T.N., Khanna, I., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F, Hogan, N. Measurement of human ankle stiffness using the anklebot. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 356-63, 2007. DOI: 10.1109/ICORR.2007.4428450.
- *Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Kinematic trajectory generation in a neuromusculoskeletal model with somatosensory and vestibular feedback. In: Modelling and control in biomedical systems, 363-68, First Edition, Feng D.D., Zaytoon J. Editors. Elsevier, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780080479491.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Kinematic trajectory generation in a neuromusculoskeletal model with somatosensory and vestibular feedback. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Modeling Control in Biomedical Systems, 363-68, 2006. DOI: 10.3182/20060920-3-FR-2912.00066.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller tuning for first-order-plus-dead-time process via Hermite-Biehler theorem. ISA Transactions, 44(3):363-78, 2005. PMID 16082786.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Optimization of goal-oriented voluntary movements. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 4998-5001, 2005. PMID 17281367.
Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Synthesis of stabilizing PID controllers for biomechanical models. Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress, 16:1–6, 2005.
- Iqbal, K. Roy, A. Stabilizing PID controllers for an inverted pendulum-based biomechanical model with position, velocity, and force feedback. ASME Transactions on Biomechanical Engineering, 126(6):838-43, 2004. DOI: 10.1115/1.1824134.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Robust stabilization in a single-link biomechanical model: a time-domain analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 1:847-52, 2004. DOI: 10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1398408.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Analytical framework for constraining the initial control effort in a biomechanical model. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:562-67, 2004. DOI: 10.1109/CCA.2004.1387271.
Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. Optimum tuning of PI-PD controllers for unstable sampled-data control systems. Proceedings of the Asian Control Conference, 1:478-85, 2004.
Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Analytical framework for jerk minimization in a single-link biomechanical model with feedback delays. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics, 463:017, 2004.
Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID Stabilization of a Single-Link Biomechanical Model with Control Effort Constraints. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Control Applications, 441:018, 2004.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. New criteria for model reduction of sampled-data control systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 146-51, 2003. DOI: 10.1109/ISIC.2003.1253929.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID stabilization of a position-controlled manipulator with wrist Sensor. Society of Manufacturing Engineers Technical Paper, 129:1-7, 2003.
Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID Stabilization of a position-controlled robot manipulator acting independently or in collaboration with human arm. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Sciences, 57:131-39, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. On using prioritized optimization in sampled-data control systems: a new variable weight. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:764-69, 2003. DOI: 10.1109/CCA.2003.1223534.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller design for first-order-plus-dead-time model via Hermite-Biehler theorem. Proceedings of the American Control Conference, 6:5286-91, 2003. DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2003.1242567.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller stabilization of a single-link biomechanical model with multiple delayed feedbacks. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 1:642-47, 2003. DOI: 10.1109/ICSMC.2003.1243887.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A., Imran, M. Passive and active contributors to postural stabilization. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 5:4502-07, 2003. DOI: 10.1109/ICSMC.2003.1245693.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Contributors to postural stabilization: a modeling-simulation study. Proceedings of the IEEE-NIST Conference on Performance Metrics, 1-6, 2003. DOI: 10.1.1.76.9305.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. PID controller design for the human-arm robot manipulator coordination problem. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 121-24, 2002. DOI: 10.1109/ISIC.2002.1157749.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID stabilization of a position-controlled manipulator with wrist sensor. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:209-14, 2002. DOI: 10.1109/CCA.2002.1040187 .
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