Director, Robotics Technology Core, VA RR&D Maryland Exercise and Robotics Center of Excellence (MERCE), Faculty, Maryland Robotics Center and Office of Advanced Engineering Education, University of Maryland at College Park
Baltimore VAMC, Annex, 209 /
209 W Fayette St, Suite 214
Dr. Anindo Roy is an Associate Professor of Neurology in the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Director of the Technology Core of the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research & Development (VA RR&D) Maryland Exercise and Robotics Center of Excellence (MERCE), and holds a faculty appointment at the Maryland Robotics Center, Institute for Systems Research and the Office of Advanced Engineering Education at the University of Maryland, College Park. Dr. Roy is an MIT-trained engineering researcher and has held prestigious postdoctoral fellowships at Georgia Institute of Technology and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His research at Georgia Tech focused on studying neuro-mechanical influences on muscle coordination during balance and locomotion with the overall goal to better characterize and model normal and impaired performance of fundamental motor tasks. At MIT, he was instrumental in furthering engineering design and development of a novel ankle robot ("Anklebot"). Since assuming his current position in 2009, his work has included development of novel Anklebot-assisted seated training interventions as well as control algorithms for treadmill-based and over ground locomotor training.
Dr. Roy's overarching research interests are twofold: first, to better understand the neuro-mechanics of pathological human gait and second, to develop and implement novel lower extremity (LE) robotic technology for rehabilitation of gait and mobility function in neurologically disabled populations. Over the past ten years, he has spearheaded the engineering development and clinical evaluation of the world's 1st impedance-controlled ankle robot module. His research at MERCE has demonstrated that performance-based, progressive seated Anklebot training improves paretic ankle motor control and reduces ankle impairment that lead to gains in key elements of overground gait function, in both chronic and early sub-acute stroke.
Dr. Roy's present research focuses on a number of pre-clinical engineering research directions:
- Development and clinical testing of a novel event-triggered, gait sub-task, deficit adjusted adaptive control system for using the Anklebot for TM-based gait training in chronic stroke. His unique control approach has successfully linked robotic support to specific functional deficits of hemiparetic gait in a manner that prevents destabilization and enables customized therapy to individual gait deficit profiles and calibration with motor learning across intervention, allowing intelligent robots to teach the central nervous system to durably learn/re-learn motor tasks;
- Using the adaptive control system to train more ecological activities of daily life (ADL) mobility functions including Anklebot-assisted over ground gait, staircase ascend/descend, controlled turns and navigation, balance tasks, among others;
- Development of the next-generation of co-operative neuro-robotics with Artificial Intelligence (AI) machine learning-based adaptive controllers that will be capable of intelligently interacting with the human and environment to optimize neuro-motor and functional recovery in stroke;
- Development of portable, battery operated untethered Anklebot module that is lightweight using smart material alloys. These engineering advances will, in the near future, create a “robotic gym” and provide clinicians and therapists a “suite” of task-specific adaptive controllers that enable and facilitate human-robot cooperative learning of specific functional ADL mobility tasks.
Dr. Roy has published more than thirty nice scientific articles in high-impact peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, and book chapters in a wide range of areas including human biomechanics, biological control systems, rehabilitation robotics, neurophysiology, and neurorehabilitation. Dr. Roy's research has been widely reported in the media, both print and television, including the VA Research Currents, Yahoo News, The Baltimore Sun, Baltimore's Fox 45 News, ABC2 News, American Heart Association (AHA) TV, to name a few.
Lab Techniques and Equipment:
Dr. Roy’s research is conducted at two sites:
- The VA RR&D Maryland Exercise & Robotics Center of Excellence (MERCE), directed by Dr. George Wittenberg. This includes a collaborative network of 26 regional faculty investigators primarily based at the VA Maryland health Care System (VAHMCS). The full resources of the VA RR&D MERCE including 2 new VA Maryland Exercise and Robotics Research Buildings representing ~30,000 ft2 dedicated clinical rehabilitation research space. The Baltimore VA Medical Center (VAMC) Annex Labs are each fully equipped with lower extremity robotics suites that are integrated into our Biomechanics laboratories to meet the full needs of current and future projects. Specifically, within MERCE Dr. Roy conducts his research in the Human Motor Performance Laboratory (HMPL) located in the new VA Annex Facility near the downtown Baltimore Medical Center.
- HMPL Resources and Equipment: The HMPL is a dedicated 2000 ft2 space and houses the following state-of-the-art gait biomechanics rehabilitation and assessment equipment: 4-VA/MIT Anklebots with controllers, computer work stations and training stations equipped with video feedback; an Optotrak infrared 3-D motion tracking and analysis system with two sensor banks; 32 channel A-to-D system integrated with Optotrak; an 8-camera Vicon/Motion Monitor system for 3D motion analysis coupled with 16 channels of A/D; 2 Bertec force platforms in a custom-built raised walkway; a 26-ft. GaitRite instrumented walkway for spatial-temporal analysis of gait; Myopac 8-channel indwelling and surface EMG system with footswitch synchronization modules; Noraxon 12-channel tethered EMG system; 5 additional computer work stations are located within the lab area for data processing; 2 DataPac2K2 16-channel analog-to-digital signal collection systems including computer boards and post-processing software; LabView and Matlab data acquisition and signal analysis software; portable force transducers with amplifiers for varied load ranges and axial orientations; Biodex rehabilitation treadmill with body weight/safety support system; 64 channel Brain Vision EEG system with 3 pre-amplified electrode caps; 64 Channel Neuroscan EEG system with SynAmps and STIM modules, workbench with tools for electronics, fabrication and equipment repairs; patient waiting area; desk space for research assistants, full network connectivity with VA firewall protection. In addition there are 5 offices and a video-networked conference room available for broadcast of meetings of off-site meetings.
- University of Maryland Rehabilitation and Orthopedics Institute (UMROI) that has a robotics research suite consisting of 1 Anklebot. Between UMROI and VA-HMPL, there are 5 Anklebot modules dedicated to research and available for clinical service.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID stabilization of a position-controlled manipulator with wrist sensor. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:209-14, 2002.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. PID controller design for the human-arm robot manipulator coordination problem. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 121-24, 2002.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Contributors to postural stabilization: a modeling-simulation study. Proceedings of the IEEE-NIST Conference on Performance Metrics, 1-6, 2003.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A., Imran, M. Passive and active contributors to postural stabilization. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 5:4502-07, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller stabilization of a single-link biomechanical model with multiple delayed feedbacks. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 1:642-47, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller design for first-order-plus-dead-time model via Hermite-Biehler theorem. Proceedings of the American Control Conference, 6:5286-91, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. On using prioritized optimization in sampled-data control systems: a new variable weight. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:764-69, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. New criteria for model reduction of sampled-data control systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 146-51, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID Stabilization of a position-controlled robot manipulator acting independently or in collaboration with human arm. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Sciences, 57:131-39, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID stabilization of a position-controlled manipulator with wrist Sensor. Society of Manufacturing Engineers Technical Paper, 129:1-7, 2003.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID Stabilization of a Single-Link Biomechanical Model with Control Effort Constraints. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Control Applications, 441:018, 2004.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K., Atherton, D.P. Optimum tuning of PI-PD controllers for unstable sampled-data control systems. Proceedings of the Asian Control Conference, 1:478-85, 2004.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Analytical framework for constraining the initial control effort in a biomechanical model. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1:562-67, 2004.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Robust stabilization in a single-link biomechanical model: a time-domain analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 1:847-52, 2004.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Analytical framework for jerk minimization in a single-link biomechanical model with feedback delays. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics, 463:017, 2004.
- Iqbal, K. Roy, A. Stabilizing PID controllers for an inverted pendulum-based biomechanical model with position, velocity, and force feedback. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 126(6): 838-43, 2004.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Synthesis of stabilizing PID controllers for biomechanical models. Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress, 16:1–6, 2005.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. Optimization of goal-oriented voluntary movements. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 4998-5001, 2005.
- Roy, A., Iqbal, K. PID controller tuning for first-order-plus-dead-time process via Hermite-Biehler theorem. ISA Transactions, 44(3): 363-78, 2005.
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Kinematic trajectory generation in a neuromusculoskeletal model with somatosensory and vestibular feedback. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Modeling Control in Biomedical Systems, 363-68, 2006.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Patterson, S.L., Judkins, T.N., Khanna, I., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F, Hogan, N. Measurement of human ankle stiffness using the anklebot. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 356-63, 2007.
- Iqbal, K. Roy, A. A novel theoretical framework for the dynamic stability analysis, movement control, and trajectory generation of a multi-segment biomechanical model. ASME Transactions on Biomechanical Engineering, 131(1):011002, 2009.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Williams, D.J., Bever, C.T., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F, Hogan, N. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: a robot for ankle rehabilitation. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 25(3): 569-82, 2009.
- Khanna, I., Roy, A., Rodgers, M.M., Macko, R.F., Krebs, H.I., Forrester, L.W. Effects of unilateral robotic limb loading on gait characteristics in subjects with chronic stroke. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 7(23), 2010.
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Ankle training with a robotic device improves hemiparetic gait after a stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 25(4): 369-77, 2011.
- Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F. Short-term ankle motor performance with ankle robotics training in chronic hemiparetic stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 48(4): 417-30, 2011.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Bever, C.T., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F., Hogan. Measurement of passive ankle stiffness in subjects with chronic hemiparesis using a novel ankle robot. Journal of Neurophysiology, 105(5): 2132-49, 2011.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Barton, J.E., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Anklebot-Assisted Locomotor Training After Stroke: A Novel Deficit-Adjusted Control Approach. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2175-2182, 2013.
- Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F., Krebs, H.I. Changes in passive ankle stiffness and its effects on gait function in people with chronic stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 50(4): 555-72, 2013.
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Goodman, R.N., Rietschel, J.C., Barton, J.E., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Clinical application of a modular ankle robot for stroke rehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation, 33(1): 85-97, 2013.
- Goodman, R.N., Roy, A., Rietschel, J.C., Balasubramanian, S., Forrester, L.W., C.T. Bever. Ankle Robotics Training with Concurrent Psychophysiological Monitoring in Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics & Biomechatronics, São Paulo, Brazil, 383-397, 2014.
- Roy, A., Krebs, H.I., Macko, N.R., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Facilitating Push-Off Propulsion: A Biomechanical Model for Ankle Robotics Assistance for Plantarflexion Gait Training. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics & Biomechatronics, São Paulo, Brazil, 656-663, 2014.
- Goodman, R.N., Rietschel, J.C., Roy, A., Jung, B.C., Diaz, J., Macko, R.F., Forrester, L.W. Increased motivation during ankle robotic training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in chronic hemiparetic stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 51(2): 213-228, 2014.
- Forrester, L.W., Roy, A., Krywonis, A., Kehs, G., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Modular ankle robotics in early sub-acute stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 28(7): 678-87, 2014.
- Kang, C.Y., Conroy, S.S., Roy, A., Bever, C.T. Robotic Assay of Arm Reaching Movements in Diverse Neurologic Populations: Can Movement Features Be Reliable, Disease-Specific Diagnostic Biomarkers? Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Singapore, 925-930, 2015.
- Barton, J.E., Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Rogers, M., Macko, R.F. A Three-Dimensional Multi-Segmental Model of Balance Maintenance During Volitional Reaching, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(1):014502, 2016.
- Iqbal, K., Altmayer, K.S., Roy, A. PID Controller Synthesis for Improved Dynamic Stability in a DFIG Model. Proceedings of the IEEE Indian Control Conference (ICC), Chennai, India, 2015.
- Forrester, L.W.*, Roy, A.*, Hafer-Macko, C., Krebs, H.I., Macko, R.F. Task-Specific Ankle Robotics Gait Training After Stroke: A Randomized Pilot Study. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13:51, 2016 (*Shared first authors).
- Iqbal, K., Roy, A. Kinematic trajectory generation in a neuromusculoskeletal model with somatosensory and vestibular feedback. In: Modelling and control in biomedical systems (including biological systems), 363-68, First Edition, Feng D.D., Zaytoon J. Editors. Elsevier, 2006. ISBN: 978-0-08-044530-4.
- Krebs, H.I., Roy, A., Artemiadis, P.K., Ahn, J., Hogan, N. Beyond Human or Robot Administered Treadmill Training for Stroke. In: Neurorehabilitation Technology, Dietz V., Rymer W.Z., & Nef T., Editors. 233-52, Springer, 2012. ISBN: 1447122763.
- Krebs, H.I., Michmizos, K., Susko, T., Lee, H., Roy, A., Hogan, N. Beyond Human or Robot Administered Treadmill Training for Stroke. In: Neurorehabilitation Technology, Second Edition, David J. Reinkensmeyer, Volker Dietz, Editors. Springer International Publishing, 2016. eBook ISBN: 978-3-319-28603-7.
- Roy, A., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F. Adaptive Control of Modular Ankle Exoskeletons in Neurologically Disabled Populations. In: Adaptive Control for Robotic Manipulators, First Edition, Dan Zhang, Bin Wei, Editors. 172-207, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ISBN 9781498764872.
Intellectual Property (Patents and Statutory Copyrights)
- US Copyright (Registration No. TXu 1-909-039) "Software Engine for Deficit-Adjusted, Task-Specific Adaptive Control of Modular Neuro-Robots," 2013.
- US Patent Pending 14/549,370 Publication No. US-2015-0141878-A1 "Methods and Apparatus for Providing Deficit-Adjusted Adaptive Assistance During Movement Phases of an Impaired Joint," 2015.
- US Provisional Patent Application 62/182,779, "Method and Apparatus for Providing Low Cost, Portable Deficit-Adjusted Adaptive Assistance During Movement Phases of an Impaired Ankle," 2015.
- US Provisional Patent "Interactive Video Exercise Tele-rehabilitation," 2015 (UMB Intellectual Property Disclosure, Docket No. RM-2015-136, in-preparation).
- Patent Cooperative Treaty (PCT) Application Patent Pending PCT/US2016/038370, "Method and Apparatus for Providing Low Cost, Portable Deficit-Adjusted Adaptive Assistance During Movement Phases of an Impaired Ankle," 2016.