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Bruce D. Greenwald

Bruce D. Greenwald M.D.

Academic Title: Professor
Primary Appointment: Medicine
Location: UMMC, Room N3W62
Phone: (410) 328-8731
Fax: (410) 328-8315

Personal History:

Dr. Greenwald completed his medical training at the University of Maryland School of Medicine magna cum laude in 1987. He completed Internal Medicine training at the University of Virginia Hospital, then returned to the University of Maryland to complete fellowship training in Gastroenterology. After serving as chief medical resident for one year, he joined the faculty of the University of Maryland School of Medicine in 1993. He was promoted to Professor of Medicine in 2009. He is also a member of the Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Dr. Greenwald’s clinical and research interests include cancer and pre-cancerous conditions of the esophagus, including esophageal carcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus, and esophageal squamous dysplasia. He is an active member of the Thoracic Oncology Group, which utilizes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons, medical and radiation oncologists, gastroenterologists, and allied health care staff for the comprehensive management of esophageal cancer.

Research Interests:

Dr. Greenwald's clinical and research interests involve malignant and pre-malignant diseases of the esophagus. These include esophageal carcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal squamous dysplasia. Specific research interests include staging methods for esophageal cancer and endoscopic ablation therapies for Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer.


Peer-reviewed journal articles

  1. Greenwald BD, Tunkel A, Morgan KM, Campochiaro PA, Donowitz GR.  Candidal endophthalmitis after lithotripsy of renal calculi.  Southern Medical J 1992; 85(7):773-774.
  2. Greenwald BD, Huang Y, Baum R, Meltzer SJ.  Barrett's carcinoma in a 25 year-old man with point mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene.  Int J Oncol 1992; 1:271-275 (PMID: 21584541).
  3. Greenwald BD, Harpaz N, Yin J, Huang Y, Tong Y, Brown VL, McDaniel T, Newkirk C, Resau JH, Meltzer SJ.  Loss of heterozygosity affecting the p53, Rb, and mcc/apc tumor suppressor gene loci in dysplastic and cancerous ulcerative colitis.  Cancer Res 1992, 52:741-745.
  4. Yin J, Harpaz N, Tong Y, Huang Y, Laurin J, Greenwald BD, Hontanosas M, Newkirk C, Meltzer SJ. p53 point mutations in dysplastic and cancerous ulcerative colitis lesions.  Gastroenterol 1993; 104:1633-1639.
  5. Harpaz N, Peck AL, Yin J, Fiel I, Hontanosas M, Tong TR, Laurin J, Abraham JM, Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. p53 protein expression in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal dysplasia and carcinoma.  Hum Pathol 1994; 25:1069-1074.
  6. Souza RF, Garrigue-Antar L, Lei J, Yin J, Appel R, Vellucci VF, Zou T-T, Zhou X, Wang S, Rhyu M-G, Cymes K, Chan O, Park W-S, Krasna MJ, Greenwald BD, Cottrell J, Abraham JM, Simms L, Leggett B, Young J, Harpaz N, Reiss M, Meltzer SJ. Alterations of transforming growth factor-b1 receptor type II occur in ulcerative colitis-associated carcinomas, sporadic colorectal neoplasms, and esophageal carcinomas, but not in gastric neoplasms. Human Cell 1996; 9:229-236.
  7. Souza RF, Lei J, Yin J, Appel R, Zou T-T, Zhou X, Wang S, Rhyu M-G, Cymes K, Chan O, Park W-S, Krasna MJ, Greenwald BD, Cottrell J, Abraham JM, Harpaz N, Meltzer SJ. A transforming growth factor-ß1 receptor type II mutation occurs in ulcerative colitis-associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasms. Gastroenterology 1997; 112:40-45.
  8. Zou T-T, Lei J, Shi Y-Q, Yin J, Wang S, Souza RF, Shimada Y, Smolinski KN, Greenwald BD,Abraham JM, Harpaz N, Meltzer SJ. FHIT gene alterations in esophageal cancer and ulcerative colitis. Oncogene 1997; 15:101-105.
  9. Shah, S, Saum K, Greenwald BD, Krasna MJ, Sonett JR. Esophagopericardial fistula arising from Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93:465-467.
  10. Cawley HM, De Benedetti VVMG, Souza RF, Hollstein MC, Muehlbauer K-R, Liang L, Cottrell J, Salabes A, Greenwald BD, Bennett WP, Bartsh H, Meltzer SJ, Trivers GE. Serum anti-P53 antibodies in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 19-27.
  11. Kawakami K, Brabender J, Lord RV, Groshen S, Greenwald BD, Krasna MJ, Yin J, Fleisher AS, Abraham JM, Beer DG, Sidransky D, Huss HT, DeMeester TR, Eads CA, Laird PW, Ilson DH, Kelsen DP, Harpole D, Moore M.-B, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV, Meltzer SJ. Hypermethylated APC promoter DNA in serum and prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(22):1805-1811.
  12. Jiao X, Krasna MJ, Sonett J, Gamliel Z, Suntharalingam M, Doyle, Greenwald B. Pretreatment surgical lymph node staging predicts results of trimodality therapy in esophageal cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 19:880-886 (PMID: 11404146).
  13. Suntharalingam M, Haas ML, Sonett JR, Doyle A, Hausner PF, Schuetz J, Greenwald B, Krasna MJ. Accurate lymph node assessment prior to trimodality therapy for esophageal carcinoma. Cancer J 2001; 7:509-515 (PMID: 11769864).
  14. Selaru F, Zou T, Shustova V, Xu Y, Shustova V, Yin J, Mori Y, Sato F, Wang S, Greenwald BD, Krasna MJ, Abraham JM, Meltzer SJ. Global gene expression profiling in Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer: a comparative analysis using cDNA microarrays. Oncogene 2002; 21(3):475-8.
  15. Xu Y, Selaru FM, Yin J, Zou TT, Shustova V, Mori Y, Sato F, Liu TC, Olaru A, Wang S, Kimos MC, Perry K, Desai K, Greenwald BD, Krasna MJ, Shibata D, Abraham JM, Meltzer SJ. Artificial neural networks and gene filtering distinguish between global gene expression profiles of Barretts esophagus and esophageal cancer. Cancer Res 2002; 62:3493-3497.
  16. tenBerge J, Hoffman BJ, Hawes RH, Van Enckevort C, Giovannini M, Erickson RA, Catalano MF, Fogel R, Mallery S, Faigel DO, Ferrari AP, Waxman I, Palazzo L, Ben-Menachem T, Jowell PS, McGrath KM, Kowalski TE, Nguyen CC, Wassef WY, Yamao K, Chak A, Greenwald BD, Woodward TA, Vilmann P, Sabbagh L, Wallace MB. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver: indications, yield, and safety based on an international survey of 167 cases. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002; 55(7):859-62.
  17. Jiao X, Sonett J, Gamliel Z, Doyle A, Schuetz J, Greenwald B, Suntharalingam M, Krasna MJ. Trimodality treatment versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. A stratified analysis with minimally invasive pretreatment staging. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2002; 43(4):531-7 (PMID: 12124569).
  18. Krasna MJ, Jiao X, Mao YS, Sonett J, Gamliel Z, Kwong K, Burrows W, Flowers JL, Greenwald B, White C. Thoracoscopy/laparoscopy in the staging of esophageal cancer: Maryland experience. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12(4):213-8 (PMID: 12193812).
  19. Li XA, Chibani O, Greenwald B, Suntharalingam M. Radiotherapy dose perturbation of metallic esophageal stents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 ;54(4):1276-85 (PMID: 12419457).
  20. Wang S, Mori Y, Sato F, Yin J, Xu Y, Zou TT, Olaru A, Kimos MC, Perry K, Selaru FM, Deacu E, Sun M, Shi YC, Shibata D, Abraham JM, Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. An LOH and mutational investigation of the ST7 gene locus in human esophageal carcinoma. Oncogene. 2003; 22(3):467-70.
  21. Greenwald BD, Haluszka O, Hespenheide EE, Patrie JT, Williams J, Binmoeller KF, Woodall, Caldwell SH. N-2-butyl cyanocrylate for bleeding gastric varices: U.S. pilot study and cost analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98(9):1982-88.
  22. Sobel JM, Lai R, Mallery S, Levy MJ, Wiersema MJ, Greenwald BD, Gunaratnam NT. The utility of EUS-guided FNA in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus and the mediastinum. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005: 61(3):416-20.
  23. Schulmann K, Sterian A, Berki A, Yin J, Sato F, Xu Y, Olaru A, Wang S, Mori Y, Deacu E, Hamilton J, Kan T, Krasna MJ, Beer DG, Pepe MS, Abraham JM, Feng Z, Schmiegel W, Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. Inactivation of p16, RUNX3, and HPP1 occurs early in Barrett's-associated neoplastic progression and predicts progression risk. Oncogene 2005 Jun 9; 24(25):4138-48.
  24. Wang S, Zhan M, Yin J, Abraham JM, Mori Y, Sato F, Xu Y, Olaru A, Berki AT, Li H, Schulmann K, Kan T, Hamilton JP, Paun B, Yu MM, Jin Z, Cheng Y, Ito T, Mantzur C, Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. Transcriptional profiling suggests that Barrett's metaplasia is an early intermediate stage in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis. Oncogene 2006 Jun; 25(23):3346-56.
  25. Wolfsen H, Canto M, Etemad R, Greenwald B, Gress F, Schembre D, Muthusamy VR, Ribeiro A, Sharma V, Ginsberg. Bare fiber photodynamic therapy using porfimer sodium for esophageal disease. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 2006 June; 3(2): 87-92 (PMID: 25049096).
  26. Hamilton JP, Sato F, Greenwald BD, Suntharalingam M, Krasna MJ, Edelman MJ, Doyle A, Berki AT, Abraham JM, Mori Y, Kan T, Mantzur C, Paun B, Wang S, Ito T, Jin Z, Meltzer SJ. Promoter Methylation and Response to Chemotherapy and Radiation in Esophageal Cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jun; 4(6): 701-8.
  27. Aslinia F, Uradomo L, Steele A, Greenwald BD, Raufman JP. Quality assessment of colonoscopic cecal intubation: an analysis of 6 years of continuous practice at a university hospital. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr; 101(4):721-31.
  28. Hamilton JP, Sato F, Jin Z, Greenwald BD, Ito T, Mori Y, Paun BC, Kan T, Ceng Y, Wang S, Yang J, Abraham JM, Meltzer SJ. Reprimo methylation is a potential biomarker of Barrett’s-Associated esophageal neoplastic progression. Clin Cancer Res 2006 Nov 15; 12(22):6637-6642.
  29. Mai V, Greenwald B, Morris JG Jr, Raufman JP, Stine OC. Effect of bowel preparation and colonoscopy on post-procedure intestinal microbiota composition. Gut 2006 Dec; 55 (12):1822-3 (PMID: 17124165).
  30. Caldwell SH, Hespenheide EE, Greenwald BD, Northrup PG, Patrie JT. Enbucrilate for gastric varices: extended experience in 92 patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007 Jul 1, 26(1): 49-59.
  31. Selaru FM, Wang S, Yin J, Schulmann K, Xu Y, Mori Y, Olaru AV, Sato F, Hamilton JP, Abraham JM, Schneider P, Greenwald BD, Brabender J, Meltzer SJ. Beyond Field Effect: Analysis of Shrunken Centroids in Normal Esophageal Epithelia Detects Concomitant Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Bioinform Biology Insights 2007; 1:127-136 (PMID: 18425214).
  32. Greenberg R, Greenwald B, Roth JS, Ioffe O, Cross R. Squamous dysplasia of the rectum in a patient with ulcerative colitis treated with 6-mercaptopurine. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Mar;53(3):760-4. Epub 2007 Aug 24 (PMID: 17717741).
  33. Sato F, Jin Z, Schulmann K, Wang J, Greenwald BD, Ito T, Kan T, Hamilton JP, Yang J, Paun B, David S, Olaru A, Cheng Y, Mori Y, Abraham JM, Yfantis HG, Wu TT, Fredericksen MB, Wang KK, Canto M, Romero Y, Feng Z, Meltzer SJ. Three-Tiered Risk Stratification Model to Predict Progression in Barrett's Esophagus Using Epigenetic and Clinical Features. PLoS ONE. 2008 Apr 2;3(4):e1890.
  34. Peng HQ, Greenwald BD, Tavora FR, Kling E, Darwin P, Rodgers WH, Berry A. Evaluation of performance of EUS-FNA in preoperative lymph node staging of cancers of esophagus, lung, and pancreas. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008 May;36(5):290-6.
  35. Peng HQ, Halsey K, Sun CC, Manucha V, Nugent S, Rodgers WH, Suntharalingam M, Greenwald BD. Clinical utility of postchemoradiation endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy in predicting residual esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2009 25;117(6):463-72.
  36. Greenwald BD, Dumot JA, Horwhat JD, Lightdale CJ, Abrams JA. Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Endoscopic Low Pressure Liquid Nitrogen Spray Cryotherapy in the Esophagus. Dis Esophagus. Dis Esophagus 2010; 23:13-19.
  37. Shaheen NJ, Greenwald BD, Peery AF, Dumot JA, Nishioka NS, Wolfsen HC, Burdick SJ, Abrams JA, Wang KK, Mallat DB, Johnston MH, Zfass AM, Smith JO, Barthel JS, Lightdale CJ. Safety and efficacy of endoscopic spray cryotherapy for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia. Gastrointest Endosc 2010;71:686-93 (PMID:     20363409).
  38. Greenwald BD, Dumot JA, Abrams JA, Lightdale CJ, David DS, Nishioka NS, Yachimski P, Johnston MH, Shaheen NJ, Zfass AM, Smith JO, Gill KRS, Burdick JS, Mallat D, Wolfsen HC. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for esophageal cancer: safety and efficacy. Gastrointest Endosc 2010;71:680-5 (PMID: 20363410).
  39. Koshy M, Greenwald BD, Hausner P, Krasna MJ, Horiba N, Battafarano RJ, Burrows W, Suntharalingam M. Outcomes after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer: The impact of histology on failure patterns. Am J Clin Oncol. 2011; 34(3); 259-64 (PMID: 20686405).
  40. Young PE, Gentry AB, Acosta RD, Greenwald BD, Riddle M. Endoscopic ultrasound does not accurately stage early adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia of the esophagus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8(12):1037-41 (PMID: 20831900).
  41. Diehl, DL, Jain, AK, Greenwald, BD. Pneumoperitoneum after esophageal cryoablation in a patient with a PEG. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2011; 21(3); e141-2 (PMID: 21654288).
  42. Halsey KD, Chang JW, Waldt A, Greenwald BD. Recurrent disease following endoscopic ablation of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia with spray cryotherapy. Endoscopy 2011; 43(10): 844-8 (PMID: 21826629).
  43. Aslinia FM, Bagi P, Sorkin JD, Williams RB, Knodell RG, Sorkin LF, Greenwald BD, Steele A, Raufman J-P. Anatomic classification of the endoscopic appearance of the normal appendiceal orifice: a novel tool for recognition and documentation of cecal intubation. Clin Anat 2012; 25(4): 496-502 (PMID: 21913231).
  44. Halsey, KD, Arora, M, Bulsiewicz, WJ; Heath, J; Petullo, B, Madanick, RD, Dellon, E, Shaheen, NJ, Greenwald, BD. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus following endoscopic ablation of Barrett’s neoplasia. Dis Esophagus 2013; 26(2):113-116 (PMID: 22394268).
  45. Khangura, S, Greenwald BD. Endoscopic Management of Esophageal Cancer after Definitive Chemoradiotherapy. Dig Dis Sci 2013; 58(6):1477-85 (PMID: 23325163).
  46. Gosain G, Mercer K, Twaddell W, Uradomo L, Greenwald BD. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: long-term results. Gastrointest Endosc 2013 Aug;78(2):260-5. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Apr 24. (PMID: 23622979).
  47. Booth JS, Toapanta TR, Salerno-Goncalves, Patil S, Kader H, Safta A, Czinn S, Greenwald BD, Sztein MB. Characterization and functional properties of gastric tissue-resident memory T cells from children, adults, and the elderly. Frontiers in Immunology. Epub 2014 June 19. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00294.
  48. Hollon J, Puppa EL, Greenwald B, Goldberg E, Guerreiro A, Fasano A. Effect of gliadin on permeability of intestinal biopsy explants from celiac disease patients and patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Nutrients 2015; accepted for publication.

Non-peer-reviewed journal articles

  1. Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. Genetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis.   Progress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.  1993; 14(1):8-15.
  2. Greenwald BD.  Skin manifestations in IBD.  Foundation Focus.  April 1994.
  3. Greenwald BD and James SP.  Immunology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.  Curr Opin Gastroenterology. 1995: 11:298-304.
  4. Itzkowitz SH, Greenwald B, Meltzer SJ.  Basic science review:  Colon carcinogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease.  Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 1995; 1(2):142-158 (PMID: 23282306).
  5. Greenwald BD, James SP. Immunology of inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterology 1997; 13:293-301.
  6. Greenwald BD, Rutherford R, James SP. Chronic ulcerative colitis. Clinical Perspectives in Gastroenterology 1999; 2(1): 25-39.
  7. Greenwald BD. Photodynamic therapy. Update. Chest Surg Clin N Am 2000; 10(3); 625-637 (PMID: 10967762).
  8. Klapproth, J-MA, Greenwald BD. Dypsplastic polyps in chronic colitis: is colectomy needed? Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2000; 6(3);262-3 (PMID: 10961601).
  9. Bryant ML, Caldwell SH, Greenwald BD. Endoscopic treatment of gastric varices: use of band ligation, cyanoacrylate glue, and novel therapies. Techniques Gastrointest Endosc 2005; 7(1):26-31.
  10. Haluszka O, Tokar JL, Greenwald BD. Endoscopic Oncology. Curr Probl Cancer 2005 Mar-Apr; 29(2):37-112 (PMID: 16100845).
  11. Wolfsen H, Canto M, Etemad B, Greenwald B, Gress F, Schembre D, Muthusamy VR, Ribeiro A, Sharma V, Ginsberg. Bare fiber photodynamic therapy using porfimer sodium for esophageal disease. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 2006; 3:87-92.
  12. Dumot JA, Greenwald BD. Argon plasma coagulation, bipolar cautery, and cryotherapy: ABC’s of ablative techniques. Endoscopy 2008: 40:1026-1032 (PMID: 19065487).
  13. Greenwald BD, Halsey KD. Spray cryotherapy in esophageal disease. Touchpoint Briefings 2009; 5:54-57.
  14. Halsey KD, Greenwald BD. Cryotherapy in the management of esophageal dysplasia and malignancy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2010; 20(1):75-88 (PMID: 19951795).
  15. Dumot JA, Greenwald BD. Cryotherapy for Barrett’s esophagus: does the gas really matter? Endoscopy 2011; 43(5): 432-3 (PMID 21448854).
  16. Greenwald BD, Dumot JA. Cryotherapy for Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011; 27(4); 363-7 (PMID: 21597370).
  17. Greenwald BD, Lightdale CJ, Abrams JA, Horwhat, JD, Chuttani R, Komanduri S, Upton MP, Appelman HD, Shields HM, Shaheen NJ, Sontag SJ. Barrett's esophagus: endoscopic treatments II. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011; 1232:156-74 (PMID: 21950812)

Book Chapters

  1. Meltzer SJ and Greenwald BD. Molecular biology of colitis-associated neoplasms. Riecken EO, Zeitz M, Stallmach A, Heise W, eds. Malignancy and Chronic Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract - New Concepts: proceedings of the 81st Falk Symposium. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995, pp 141-152.
  2. Greenwald BD. Ulcerative Colitis. in Rakel RE, ed. Manual of Medical Practice. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1996, pp. 344-6.
  3. Greenwald BD, Meltzer SJ. Molecular biology of gastrointestinal cancer: current relevance, in Wanebo HJ, ed. Surgery of Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach.  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1997, pp 31-41.
  4. Greenwald BD. Ulcerative Colitis. in Rakel RE, ed. Manual of Medical Practice, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2000, pp. 456-8.
  5. Potosky D, Greenwald B. Gastrointestinal Diseases. In Wolfsthal SD, ed. Medicine: National medical series for independent study, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, pp. 185-244.
  6. Thomas A, Potosky D, Greenwald BD. Gastrointestinal Diseases. In: Wolfsthal SD, editor.  National Medical Series – Medicine, 7th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkens, 2011, pp. 215-273.
  7. Halsey KD and Greenwald BD. What are the risk factors for the development of esophageal cancer? In: Adler DG, editor. Curbside Consultation in GI Cancer for the Gastroenterologist. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated, 2011, pp. 3-6.