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J. Richard  Hebel

J. Richard Hebel Ph.D.

Academic Title: Professor (non-adjunct Faculty)
Primary Appointment: Epidemiology & Public Health
Location: HH 102C
Phone: (410) 706-3810

Research Interests:

Evaluation of Biomarkers, Proxy Reliability and Validity, Recovery from Hip Fracture and Replacement, Fetal Exposure to Cigarette Smoking, Urinary Catheterization and Infections, Outcomes Associated with Senile Dementia, Statistical Methods in Epidemiology




Fredman, L., Magaziner, J., Hebel, J.R., Hawkes, W., Zimmerman, S.I. Depressive symptoms and 6-year mortality among elderly community-dwelling women. Epidemiology, 10(1):54-9, 1999.

Zimmerman, S.I., Girman, C.J., Buie, V.C., Chandler, J., Hawkes, W., Martin, A., Holder, L., Hebel, J.R., Sloane, P.D., Magaziner, J. The prevalence of osteoporosis in nursing home residents. Osteoporosis International, 9:151-57, 1999.

Zimmerman, S.I., Smith, H.D., Gruber-Baldini, A., Fox, K.M., Hebel, J.R., Kenzora, J., Felsenthal, G., Magaziner, J. Short-term persistent depression following hip fracture: A risk factor and target to increase resilience in elderly people. Social Work Research, 23(3):187-196, 1999.

Bloom, D.A., Burnett, J.W., Hebel, J.R., Alderslade, P. Effects of verapamil and CSL antivenom on Chironex fleckeri (Box-jellyfish) induced mortality. Toxicon, 37:1621-1626, 1999.

Kittner, S.J., Giles, W.H., Macko, R.F., Hebel, J.R., Wozniak, M.A., Wityk, R.J., Stolley, P.D., Stern, B.J., Sloan, M.A., Sherwin, R., Price, T.R., McCarter, R.J., Johnson, C.J., Earley, C.J., Buchholz, D.W., Malinow, M.R. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study. Stroke, 30(8):1554-60, 1999.

Warren, J.W., Abrutyn, E., Hebel, J.R., Johnson, J.R., Schaeffer, A.J., Stamm, W.E. Guidelines for antimicrobial treatment of uncomplicated acute bacterial cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in women. Clin Infect Dis, 29(4):745-758, 1999.

Wozniak, M.A., Kittner, S.J., Price, T.R., Hebel, J.R., Sloan, M.A., Gardner, J.F. Stroke location is not associated with return to work after first ischemic stroke. Stroke, 30(12):2568-2573, 1999.

Dubin, N.H., Monahan, L.K., Yu-Yahiro, J.A., Michael, R.H., Zimmerman, S.I., Hawkes, W., Hebel, J.R., Fox, K.M., Magaziner, J. Serum concentrations of steroids, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin in postmenopausal women during the year following hip fracture: effect of location of fracture and age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 54(9):M467-M473, 1999.

Johnson, D.E., Bahrani, F.K., Lockatell, C.V., Drachenberg, C.B., Hebel, J.R., Belas, R., Warren, J.W., Mobley, H.L. Serum immunoglobulin response and protection from homologous challenge by proteus mirabilis in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Infect Immun, 67(12):6683-6687, 1999.

Fox, K.M., Magaziner, J., Hebel, J.R., Kenzora, J.E., Kashner, T.M. Intertrochanteric versus femoral neck hip fractures: differential characteristics, treatment, and sequelae. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 54(12):M635-M640, 1999.

Zimmerman, S.I., Hawkes, W., Chandler, J., Buie, V.C., Hebel, J.R., Sloane, P.D., Martin, A., Magaziner, J., Holder, L., Girman, C.J. Correlates of bone mineral density in nursing home residents. J Nutrition, Health & Aging, 3(3):140-145, 1999.

Martin, A.R., Holder, L.E., Buie, V., Chandler, J.M., Girman, C.J., Hawkes, W., Hebel, J.R., Magaziner, J., Sloane, P., Zimmerman, S. Measurement of distal forearm bone mineral density. Can different forearm segments be used interchangeably? J Clin Densitometry, 2(4):381-387, 1999.

Gilbert, T.B., Hawkes, W.G., Hebel, J.R., Hudson, J.I., Kenzora, J.E., Zimmerman, S.I., Felsenthal, G., Magaziner, J. Spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia for hip fracture repair: a longitudinal observation of 74 elderly patients during 2-year follow-up. A J Orthop, 29(1):25-35, 2000.

Fox, K.M., Magaziner, J., Hawkes, W.G., Yu-Yahiro, J., Hebel, J.R., Zimmerman, S.I., Holder, L., Michael, R. Loss of bone density and lean body mass after hip fracture. Osteoporos Int, 11:31-35, 2000.

Warren, J.W., Horne, L.M., Hebel, J.R., Marvel, R.P., Keay, S.K., Chai, T.C. Pilot study of sequential oral antibiotics for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol, 163(6):1685-1688, 2000.

Hasday, J.D., Meltzer, S.S., Moore, W.C., Wisniewski, P., Hebel, J.R., Lanni, C., Dube, L.M., Bleecker, E.R. Anti-inflammatory effects of zileuton in a subpopulation of allergic asthmatics. A J Respir Crit Care Med, 161(4 Pt1):1229-1236, 2000.

Wityk, R.J., Kittner, S.J., Jenner, J.L., Hebel, J.R., Epstein, A., Woniak, M.A., Stolley, P.D., Stern, B.J., Sloan, M.A., Price, T.R., McCarter, R.J., Macko, R.F., Johnson, C.J., Earley, C.J., Buchholz, D.W., Schaefer, E.J. Lipoprotein (a) and the risk of ischemic stroke in young women. Atherosclerosis, 150(2):389-396, 2000.

Visser, M., Harris, T.B., Fox, K.M., Hawkes, W., Hebel, J.R., Yahiro, J.Y., Michael, R., Zimmerman, S.I., Magaziner, J. Change in muscle mass and muscle strength after a hip fractures: relationship to mobility recovery. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 55(8):M434-M440, 2000.

Chandler, J.M., Zimmerman, S.I., Girman, C.J., Martin, A.R., Hawkes, W., Hebel, J.R., Sloane, P.D., Holder, L., Magaziner, J. Low none mineral density and risk of fracture in white female nursing home residents. JAMA, 284(8):972-977, 2000.

Magaziner, J., Hawkes, W., Hebel, J.R., Zimmerman, S.I., Fox, K.M., Dolan, M., Felsenthal, G. Recovery from hip fracture in eight areas of function. J. Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55(9):M498-507, 2000.

Magaziner, J., German, P.,Zimmerman, S.I., Hebel, J.R., Burton, L., Gruber-Baldini, A.L., May, C., Kittner, S. The prevalence of dementia in a statewide sample of new nursing home admissions aged 65 and older: diagnosis by expert panel. Epidemiology of Dementia in Nursing Homes Research Group. Gerontologist 40(6):663-72, 2000

Dolan, M.M., Hawkes, W., Zimmerman, S.I., Morrison, R.S., Gruber-Baldini, A.L., Hebel, J.R., Magaziner, J. Delirium on hospital admission in aged hip fracture patients: prediction of mortality and 2-year functional outcomes. J. Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55(9):M527-534, 2000.

Kaul, S., Kittner, S,J., Wozniak, M.A., Sloan, M.A., Corretti, M., Hebel, J.R., Price, T.R. Clinical features of cardioembolic strokes identified by transesophageal echocardiography. Neuro India 48(4):333-337, 2000.

Weintraub, D., Raskin A., Ruskin, P.E., Gruber-Baldini, A.L., Zimmerman, S.I., Hebel, J.R., German, P., Magaziner, J. Racial differences in the prevalence of dementia among patients admitted to nursing homes. Psych Serv 51(10):1259-1264, 2000.

Fredman, L., Hawkes, W., Zimmerman, S.I., Hebel, J.R., Magaziner, J. Extending gerontological research through linking investigators: studies to public-use datasets. The Gerontologist 41(1):15-22, 2001.

Menon, A.S., Gruber-Baldini, A.L., Hebel, J.R., Kaup, B., Loreck, D., Zimmerman, S.I., Burton, L., German, P., Magaziner, J. Relationship between aggressive behaviors and depression among nursing home residents with dementia. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry 16:139-146, 2001.

Burton LC, German PS, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. Medical Care for Nursing Home Residents: Differences by Dementia Status. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001 Feb;49(2):142-147.

Menon AS, Kondapavalru P, Krishna P, Chrismer JB, Raskin A, Hebel JR, Ruskin PE. Evaluation of a portable low cost videophone system in the assessment of depressive symptoms and cognitive function in elderly medically ill veterans. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001 Jun;189(6):399-401.

Yu-Yahiro JA, Michael RH, Dubin NH, Fox KM, Sachs M, Hawkes WG, Hebel JR, Zimmerman SI, Shapiro J, Magaziner J. Serum and urine markers of bone metabolism during the year after hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Jul;49(7):877-83.

Port CL, Gruber-Baldini AL, Burton L, Baumgarten M, Hebel JR, Zimmerman SI, Magaziner J. Resident contact with family and driends following nursing home admission. Gerontologist 2001 Oct;41(5):589-96.

Zoarski GH, Snow P, Olan WJ, Stallmeyer MJ, Dick BW, Hebel JR, De Deyne M. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures: Quantitative Prospective Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002 Feb;13(2):139-48.

Zimmerman S, Hawkes WG, Hudson JI, Magaziner J, Hebel JR, Towheed T, Gardner J, Provenzano G, Kenzora JE. Outcomes of surgical management of total HIP replacement in cemented versus cementless femoral components and lateral or anterolateral versus posterior anatomical approach. patients aged 65 years and older. J Orthop Res. 2002 Mar;20(2):182-91.

Zimmerman S, Chandler JM, Hawkes W, Sloane PD, Hebel JR, Magaziner J, Martin AR, Girman CJ. Effect of fracture on the health care use of nursing home residents. Arch Intern Med 2002 Jul8;162(13):1502-8.

Girman CJ, Chandler JM, Zimmerman SI, Martin AR, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, Sloane PD, Magaziner J. Prediction of fracture in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002 Aug;50(8):1341-7.

Bahrani-Mougeot FK, Buckles EL, Lockatell CV, Hebel JR, Johnson DE, Tang CM, Donnenberg MS. Type 1 fimbriae and extracellular polysaccharides are preeminent uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence determinants in the murine urinary tract. Mol Microbiol 2002 Aug;45(4):1079-93.

Brey RL, Stallworth CL, McGlasson DL, Wozniak MA, Wityk RJ, Stern BJ, Sloan MA, Sherwin R, Price TR, Macko RF, Johnson CJ, Earley CJ, Buchholz DW, Hebel JR, Kittner SJ. Antiphospholipid antibodies and stroke in young women. Stroke 2002 Oct;33(10):2396-401.

Joshi VD, Kalvakolanu DV, Hebel JR, Hasday JD, Cross AS. Role of caspase 1 in murine antibacterial host defenses and lethal endotoxemia. Infect Immun 2002 Dec;70(12):6896-903.

Zimmerman S, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Sloane PD, Magaziner J. Nursing home facility risk factors for infection and hospitalization: importance of registered nurse turnover, administration, and social factors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Dec;50(12):1987-1995.

Port CL, Hebel JR, Gruber-Baldini AL, Baumgarten M, Burton L, Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. Measuring the frequency of contact between nursing home residents and their family and friends. Nurs Res 2003 Jan-Feb;52(1):52-6.

Zimmerman S, Gruber-Baldini AL, Sloane PD, Eckert JK, Hebel JR, Morgan LA, Stearns SC, Wildfire J, Magaziner J, Chen C, Konrad TR. Assisted living and nursing homes: apples and oranges? Gerontologist. 2003 Apr;43 Spec No 2:107-17.

Magaziner J, Fredman L, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Orwig DL, Wehren L. Changes in functional status attributable to hip fracture: a comparison of hip fracture patients to community-dwelling aged. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun 1;157(11):1023-31.

van Doorn C, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, Hebel JR, Port CL, Baumgarten M, Quinn CC, Taler G, May C, Magaziner J. Dementia as a risk factor for falls and fall injuries among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Sep;51(9):1213-8.

Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, Morrison RS, Grattan LM, Hebel JR, Dolan MM, Hawkes W, Magaziner J. Cognitive impairment in hip fracture patients: timing of detection and longitudinal follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Sep;51(9):1227-36.

Baumgarten M, Margolis D, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, German P, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. Pressure ulcers and the transition to long-term care. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2003 Nov;16(6):299-304.

Wehren LE, Hawkes WG, Orwig DL, Hebel JR, Zimmerman SI, Magaziner J. Gender differences in mortality after hip fracture: the role of infection. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Dec;18(12):2231-7.

Cole JW, Pinto AN, Hebel JR, Buchholz DW, Earley CJ, Johnson CJ, Macko RF, Price TR, Sloan MA, Stern BJ, Wityk RJ, Wozniak MA, Kittner SJ. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the risk of stroke. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):51-6.

Wehren LE, Hawkes WG, Hebel JR, Orwig D, Zimmerman SI, Fox KM, Yu-Yahiro J, Magaziner J. Predictors of bone loss after hip fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2004 Feb;15(2):125-31.

Cole JW, Pinto AN, Hebel JR, Buchholz DW, Earley CJ, Johnson CJ, Macko RF, Price TR, Sloan MA, Stern BJ, Wityk RJ, Wozniak MA, Kittner SJ. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the risk of stroke. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1).

Burall LS, Harro JM, Li X, Lockatell CV, Himpsl SD, Hebel JR, Johnson DE, Mobley HL. Proteus mirabilis genes that contribute to pathogenesis of urinary tract infection: identification of 25 signature-tagged mutants attenuated at least 100- fold. Infect Immun. 2004 May;72(5):2922-38.

Yasuda N, Zimmerman S, Hawkes WG, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. Concordance of proxy-perceived change and measured change in multiple domains of function in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jul;52(7):1157-62.

Baumgarten M, Margolis D, van Doorn C, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. Black/White differences in pressure ulcer incidence in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Aug;52(8):1293-8.

Ruskin PE, Silver-Aylaian M, Kling MA, Reed SA, Bradham DD, Hebel JR, Barrett D, Knowles F 3rd, Hauser P. Treatment outcomes in depression: comparison of remote treatment through telepsychiatry to in-person treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;161(8):1471-6.

Sloane PD, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman S, Roth M, Watson L, Boustani M, Magaziner J, Hebel JR. Medication undertreatment in assisted living settings. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Oct 11;164(18):2031-7.

Hawkes WG, Williams GR, Zimmerman S, Lapuerta P, Li T, Orwig D, Wehren L, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. A clinically meaningful difference was generated for a performance measure of recovery from hip fracture. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004 Oct;57(10):1019-24.

Wehren LE, Hawkes WG, Hebel JR, Orwig DL, Magaziner J. Bone mineral density, soft-tissue body composition, strength, and functioning after hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005 Jan;60(1):80-4.

Resnick B, Orwig D, Wehren L, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. Health-related quality of life: is it a good indicator of function post THR? Rehabil Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr;30(2):46-54, 67.

Domergue R, Castano I, De Las Penas A, Zupancic M, Lockatell V, Hebel JR, Johnson D, Cormack BP. Nicotinic acid limitation regulates silencing of Candida adhesins during UTI. Science. 2005 May 6;308(5723):866-70.

Zimmerman S, Sloane PD, Eckert JK, Gruber-Baldini AL, Morgan LA, Hebel JR, Magaziner J, Stearnes SC, Chen CK. How good is assisted living? Findings and implications from an outcomes study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Jul;60(4):S195-204.

Stuart B, Gruber-Baldini AL, Fahlman C, Quinn CC, Burton L, Zuckerman IH, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Singhal PK, Magaziner J. Medicare cost differences between nursing home patients admitted with and without dementia. Gerontologist. 2005 Aug;45(4):505-15.

Lane MC, Lockatell V, Monterosso G, Lamphier D, Weinert J, Hebel JR, Johnson DE, Mobley HL. Role of Motility in the Colonization of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the Urinary Tract. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov;73(11):7644-56.

Sloane PD, Zimmerman S, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Magaziner J, Konrad TR. Health and functional outcomes and health care utilization of persons with dementia in residential care and assisted living facilities: comparison with nursing homes. Gerontologist. 2005 Oct;45 Suppl 1:124-34.

Magaziner J, Zimmerman S, Gruber-Baldini AL, van Doorn C, Hebel JR, German P, Burton L, Taler G, May C, Quinn CC, Port CL, Baumgarten M. Mortality and Adverse Health Events in Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents with and without Dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1858-66.

Fredman L, Magaziner J, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, Fried LP, Kasper J, Guralnik J. Female hip fracture patients had poorer performance-based functioning than community-dwelling peers over 2-year follow-up period. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005 Dec;58(12):1289-98.

Bercovitz A, Gruber-Baldini AL, Burton LC, Hebel JR. Healthcare utilization of nursing home residents: comparison between decedents and survivors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Dec;53(12):2069-75.

Zuckerman IH, Hernandez JJ, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Stuart B, Zimmerman S, Magaziner J. Potentially inappropriate prescribing before and after nursing home admission among patients with and without dementia. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2005 Dec;3(4):246-54.

Zimmerman S, Hawkes WG, Hebel JR, Fox KM, Lydick E, Magaziner J. The lower extremity gain scale: a performance-based measure to assess recovery after hip fracture. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Mar;87(3):430-6.

Magaziner J, Wehren L, Hawkes WG, Orwig D, Hebel JR, Fredman L, Stone K, Zimmerman S, Hochberg MC. Women with hip fracture have a greater rate of decline in bone mineral density than expected: another significant consequence of a common geriatric problem. Osteoporos Int. 2006 Jul;17(7):971-7.

Hawkes WG, Wehren L, Orwig D, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. Gender differences in functioning after hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 May;61(5):495-9.

Morris JG Jr, Grattan LM, Wilson LA, Meyer WA, McCarter R, Bowers HA, Hebel JR, Matuszak DL, Oldach DW. Occupational exposure to pfiesteria species in estuarine waters is not a risk factor for illness. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jul;114(7):1038-43.

Miller RR, Cappola AR, Shardell MD, Hawkes WG, Yu-Yahiro JA, Hebel JR, Magaziner J. Persistent changes in interleukin-6 and lower extremity function following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Oct;61(10):1053-8.

Martins SS, Copersino ML, Soderstrom CA, Smith GS, Dischinger PC, McDuff DR, Hebel JR, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Read KM, Gorelick DA. Risk of psychoactive substance dependence among substance users in a trauma inpatient population. J Addict Dis. 2007;26(1):71-7.

Soderstrom CA, Diclemente CC, Dischinger PC, Hebel JR, McDuff DR, Auman KM,Kufera JA. A controlled trial of brief intervention versus brief advice for at-risk drinking trauma center patients. J Trauma. 2007 May;62(5):1102-12.

Martins SS, Copersino ML, Soderstrom CA, Smith GS, Dischinger PC, McDuff DR, Hebel JR, Kerns TJ, Ho SM, Read KM, Gorelick DA. Sociodemiographic characteristics associated with substance use status in a trauma inpatient population. J Addict Dis. 2007;26(2):53-62.

Resnick B, Magaziner J, Orwig D, Yu-Yahiro J, Hawkes W, Shardell M, Hebel JR, Zimmerman S, Golden J, Werner M. Testing the effectiveness of the exercise plus program in older women post-hipfracture. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Aug;34(1):67-76.

Zimmerman S, Gruber-Baldini AL, Hebel JR, Burton L, Boockvar K, Taler G, Quinn CC, Magaziner J. Nursing home characteristics related to medicare costs for residents with and without dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Feb-Mar;23(1):57-65.

Resnick B, D’Amado C, M Shardell, Orwig D, Hawkes W, Hebel JR, Golden J, Magaziner J, Zimmerman S, Yu-Yahiro J. Adherence to an exercise intervention among older women post hip fracture. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2008 Mar;2(1):41-56.

Himpsl SD, Lockatell CV, Hebel JR, Johnson DE, Mobley HL. Identification of virulence determinants in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis using signature-tagged mutagenesis. J Med Microbiol. 2008 Sep;57(Pt 9):1068-78.


Morton, R.F. and Hebel, J.R.A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1979.

Morton, R.F. and Hebel, J.R.: A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 2nd Edition. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1984.

Morton, R.F., Hebel, J.R. and McCarter, R.J.: A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Third Edition. Aspen Publishers, Rockville, 1990.

Morton, R.F., Hebel, J.R. and McCarter, R.J.: A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 4th Edition. Aspen Publishers, Rockville, 1996.

Morton, R.F., Hebel, J.R. and McCarter, R.J.: A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 5th Edition. Aspen Publishers, Rockville, 2000.

Hebel, J.R. and McCarter, R.J.: A Study Guide To Epidemiology and Biostatistics. 6th Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, 2006.

Book Chapters

Sexton, M., Hebel, J.R. and Fox, N.L.: "Postpartum smoking." In: Smoking and Reproductive Health, Rosenberg, M.J. (Ed), PSG Publishing Company, 1987, p. 222-226.

Zimmerman, S., Sloane, P.D., Eckert, J.K., Brue, V.C., Walsh, J.F., Koch, G.G., and Hebel, J.R.: “An Overview of the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term Care” In: Assisted Living:Needs, Practices and Policiies in Residential Care for the Elderly. Zimmerman, S., Sloane, P.D., Eckert, J.K. (Eds.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001,p.117-143.