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Christopher T. Bever Jr.

Christopher T. Bever Jr. M.D., M.B.A.

Academic Title: Professor Emeritus
Primary Appointment: Neurology
Additional Title(s): Director, VA Maryland Health Care System's MS Center of Excellence - East; Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development, VAMHC
Location: Baltimore VA Medical Center, Research Service (151)
Phone: (410) 605-7130
Fax: (410) 605-7929

Personal History:

Dr. Bever is Professor in the Departments of Neurology and Pharmacology, Experimental Therapeutics and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Director of the Department of Veteran's Affairs Multiple Sclerosis Center of Excellence - East and Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development at the Baltimore VAMC. He received his B.A. from Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri in 1971 and his M.D. from the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York in 1975. He completed a residency in Neurology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York in 1980 and fellowship training in immunology and neuroimmunology at the National Institutes of Health in 1984. He served on the faculty of Neurology at the University of Tennessee from 1984 until 1987 when he moved to his current position in the Department of Neurology at the University of Maryland. He has published extensively on the pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment of multiple sclerosis and his work has been supported by grants from the Department of Veteran's Affairs, National Multiple Sclerosis Society and National Institutes of Health.

Research Interests:

  • Biochemical mechanisms of myelin damage in multiple sclerosis and their therapeutic modulation
  • The use of potassium channel blockers in the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis
  • Task oriented and robot assisted neurologic rehabilitation
  • Positional recognition in neuronal development

Clinical Speciality:

Neurology (Multiple Sclerosis)

Grants & Contracts:

VA Center of Excellence center grant: MS Center
VA Laboratory Merit Review award: "BDNF gene delivery in EAE"
VA Rehabilitation Merit Review award: "Evaluation of robot assisted upper extremity neuro-rehabilitation"
National Multiple Sclerosis Society grant: "Combination therapy with interferon beta and BDNF in EAE"


Selected Journal Articles (Refereed)

Goolsby J, Marty MC, Helletz D, Chiappelli J, Tashko G, Yarnell D, Fishman P, Dhib-Jalbut S, Bever C, Pessac B, Trisler D. Haematopoietic progenitors express neural genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 100: 14926-14931, 2003.

Graber J, Zhan M, Ford D, Kursch F, Francis G, Bever C, Panitch H, Calabresi P, Dhib-Jalbut S. Interferon-beta-1a induces increases in vascular cell adhesion molecules: implications for its mode of action in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunology, In press.

Sullivan CL, Wilkens JA, Rabin BM, Demorest M, Bever C. Psychosocial adjustment to multiple sclerosis. Int J MS Care 6: 98-105, 2004

Sandberg-Wollheim M, Bever C, Carter J, Farkkila M, Hurwitz B, Lapierre Y, Chang P, Francis GS. Comparative tolerance of IFN beta-1a regimens in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The EVIDENCE study. J Neurol 252: 8-13, 2005.

Schwid SR, Thorpe J, Sharief M, Sandberg-Wollheim M, Rammohan K, Wendt J, Panitch H, Goodin D, Li D, Chang P, Francis G; EVIDENCE Study Group (CT Bever, Member); University of British Columbia MS/MRI Research Group. Enhanced benefit of increasing interferon beta-1a dose and frequency in relapsing multiple sclerosis: the EVIDENCE Study. Arch Neurol. 2005 May;62(5):785-92

Judge SIV, Bever CT, Lee JM, Hoffman PM. Voltage gated potassium channels in CNS inflammation and degeneration: New implications for MS, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 2005, In press.

Finley MA, Fasoli SE, Dipietro L, Ohloff J, MacClellan LR, Whitall J, Macko R, Bever CT Jr, Krebs HI, Hogan N. Short-duration robotic therapy in stroke patients with severe upper-limb motor impairment. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 2005, 42: 683-692.

McClellan LR, Bradham DD, Whitall J, Volpe BT, Wilson PD, Ohlhoff J, Meister C, Hogan N, Krebs HI, Bever CT. Robotic upper extremity neuro-rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 2005, 42: 717-722.

Dipietro L, Krebs HI, Fasoli SE, Volpe BT, Stein J, Bever CT, Hogan N. Changing motor synergies in chronic stroke. J Neurophysiol 2007; 98: 757-768.

Kane RL, Bever CT, Ehrmantraut M, Forte A, Culpepper WJ, Wallin MT. Teleneurology in patients with multiple sclerosis: EDSS ratings derived remotely and from hands-on examination. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 14: 190-194, 2008.

Makar TK, Trisler D, Sura K, Sultana S, Bever CT. Brain derived neurotrophic factor treatment in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis reduces apoptosis and inflammation. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 270: 70-76, 2008.

Makar TK, Trisler D, Bever CT, Sura K, Sultana S, N. Patel N, Ford, Singh I, Gupta A, Valenzuda R, Dhib-Jalbut S. Stem cell-based CNS delivery of IFN-β reduced relapses in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunology 196: 67-81, 2008.

Goodman AD, Brown TR - Fampridine MS-F202 Study Group (C Bever, member). Dose comparison trial of sustained-release fampridine in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 71: 1134-1141, 2008.

Mikol DD, Barkhof F, Chang P - REGARD Study Group (C Bever, member). Comparison of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a with glatiramer acetate in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (the Rebif versus Glatiramer Acetate in Relapsing MS Disease (REGARD) study): a multicenter, randomzed, parallel, open-label trial. Lancet Neurol 7: 903-914, 2008.

Goodman AD, Brown TR, Krupp LB - Fampridine MS-F203 Investigators (C Bever, member). Sustained-release oral fampridine in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 373: 732-738, 2009.

Goodman AD, Rossman H, Bar-Or A, Miller A, Miller DH, Schmierer K, Lublin F, Khan O, Bormann NM, Yang M, Panzara MA, Sandrock AW for the GLANCE Investigators (CT Bever: Member). GLANCE: results of a phase 2 randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 2009; 72: 806-812.

Lo AC, Guarino P, Krebs HI, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Duncan PW, Ringer RJ, Wagner TH, Richards LG, Bravata DM, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, Corn BH, Maffucci AD, Peduzzi P. Multicenter Randomized Trial of Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Chronic Stroke: Methods and Entry Characteristics for VA ROBOTICS. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 23: 775-783, 2009.

Makar TK, Bever CT, Singh IS, Royal W, Sahu SN, Sura TP, Sultana S, Sura KT, Patel N, Dhib-Jalbut S, Trisler. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery in an animal model of multiple sclerosis using bone marrow stem cells as a vehicle. J Neuroimmunol 29: 40-51, 2009.

Finley MA, Dipietro L, Ohlhoff J, Whitall J, Krebs HI, Bever CT. The effect of repeated measurements using an upper extremity robot in healthy adults. J Appl Biomech 25: 103-110, 2009.

Ebers GC, Reder AT, Traboulsee A, Li D, Investigators of the 16-year long term follow-up study (CT Bever, Member). Long-term follow-up of the original interferon-beta1b trial in multiple sclerosis: design and lessons from a 16 year observational study. Clin Ther 2009; 31: 1724-1736.

Roy A, Krebs HI, Williams D, Bever C, Forrester L, Macko R, Hogan N. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: A novel robot for ankle rehabilitation. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2009; 25: 569-582.

Radue EW, Stuart WH, Calabresi PAâ?¦SENTINEL investigators. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a reduces lesion formation in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Neurol Sci 2010; 292: 28-35.

Reder AT, Ebers GC, Traboulsee A, Li D, Langdon D, Goodin DS, Bogumil T, Beckmann K, Donieczny A for the investigators of the 16 year long-term follow-up study (CT Bever: Member). Neurology 2010; 74: 1877-1885.

Lo AC, Guarino PD, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, Ringer RJ, Wagner TH, Krebs HI, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Bravata DM, Duncan PW, Corn BH, Maffucci AD, Nadeau SE, Conroy SS, Powell JM, Huang GD, Peduzzi P. Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1772-1783.

McDowell TY, Amr S, Langenberg P, Royal W, Bever C, Culpepper WJ, Bradham DD. Time of birth, residential solar radiation and age at onset of multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 2010; 34: 238-244.

Cheng E, Crandall CJ, Bever CT Jr, Giesser B, Haselkorn JK, Hays RD, Schekelle P, Vickrey BG. Quality indicators for multiple sclerosis. Mult Sclerosis 2010; 16: 970-980.

Goodman AD, Brown TR, Edwards, MSF204 Investigators (CT Bever: Member). A phase 3 trial of extended release oral dalfampridine in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2010; 68: 494-502.

Ebers GC, Traboulsee A, Li D, Longdon D, Reder AT, Goodin DS, Bogumil T, Beckmann K, Wolf C, Konieczny A for the investigators of the 16 year long-term follow-up study (CT Bever: Member). Analysis of clinical outcomes according to the original treatment groups 16 years after the pivotal interferon-beta 1b trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81: 907-980.

Bever CT, Franklin GM, Kaufman JM, Esper GJ. Role of professionalism in improving the patient-centeredness, timeliness and equity of neurological care. Arch Neurol 2010; 67: 1386-1390.

Cheng EM, Tonn S, Swain-Eng R, Factor SA, Weiner WJ, Bever CT. Quality improvement in Neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures: report of the Quality Measurement and Reporting Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2010; 75: 2021-2027.

McDowell TY, Amr S, Culpepper WJ, Langenberg P, Royal W, Bever C, Bradham DD. Sun exposure, vitamin D and age at disease onset in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 2011; 36: 39-45.

Fountain NB, Van Ness PC, Swain-Eng R, Tonn S, Bever CT. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN epilepsy quality measures: Report of the Quality Measurement and Reporting Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2011; 76: 94-99.

Roy A, Krebs HI, Bever CT, Forrester LW, Macko RF, Hogan N. Measurement of passive ankle stiffness in subjects with chronic hemiparesis using a novel ankle robot. J Neurophysiol 2011; 105: 2132-2149.

Wagner TH, Lo AC, Peduzzi P, Bravata DM, Huang GD, Krebs HI, Ringer RJ, Federman DG, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Duncan PW, Siroka A, Guarino PD.  An Economic Analysis of Robot-assisted Therapy for Long-Term Upper-Limb Impairment after Stroke.  Stroke 2011; 42:2630-2632.

Conroy SS, Whitall J, Dipietro L, Jones-Lush LM, Zhan M, Finley MA, Wittenberg GF, Krebs HI, Bever CT. Effect of gravity on robot-assisted motor training after chronic stroke: A randomized trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92: 1754-1761.

Goolsby J, Atamas M, Rollor S, Asamuma D, Schuh R, Makar T, Fishman PS, Bever CT, Trisler D. Retinal neural progenitors express topographic map markers. Neurochemistry International 2012, In press.

Chapters and Invited Reviews

Levy HB, Chirigos M, Talmage J, McFarlin DE, Bever CT, Salazar A, Engel WK:  Studies with Poly IC:LC:  Effect of immune modulation and paralytic neurological diseases.  Proceedings of the International Symposium on Interferons, Ed. T. Kishida, Japan Convention Services, Osaka, Japan, 1984, pages 330-337.

Bever CT, Whitaker JN:  Proteinases in inflammatory demyelinating disease.  Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 8:  235-250, 1985.

Levy HB, Bever CT:  Immune modulating effects of Poly IC:LC in mice, monkeys, and men.  In Applied Bioactive Polymeric Systems, Editors Gebelein CG, Carraher CE, Plenum Press, New York, 1988, pages 205-222.

Panitch HS, Bever CT:  Clinical use of interferons in multiple sclerosis.  In Interferon:  Principles and Medical Applications, Editors Baron S, et al., The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, 1992.

Bever CT:  Current status of studies of aminopyridines in multiple sclerosis.  Annals of Neurology, 36 (Supplement): S118-S121, 1994.

Bever CT:  4-Aminopyridine:  Use in Multiple Sclerosis.  CNS Drug Reviews 1: 261-279, 1995.

Bever CT:  Aminopyridines.  In Handbook of Multiple Sclerosis, Second Edition, Ed. S Cook, Marcel Dekker, 1996.

Bever CT:  Symptomatic Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis, Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 1: 221-237, 1999.

Bever CT: Clinical Pharmacology of Abnormal Potassium Channel Organization in Demyelinated Axons, In Multiple Sclerosis as a Neuronal Disease, Ed. S.Waxman, Elsevier, 2005.

Judge SIV & Bever CT, Jr.  Potassium channel blockers in multiple sclerosis: Central nervous system Kv channels and effects of symptomatic treatment.  Pharmacology & Therapeutics 111:224-259, 2006.

Instructional Video Programs

Bever, CT:  Investigator Training:  Rating Neurological Impairment Using the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale.  University of Maryland, Baltimore, 1996.

Bever CT:  Quantitation of Neurological Impairment Using the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale and the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale.  University of Maryland, Baltimore, 1997.

Haselkorn J, Bourdette D, Bowen J, Bever CT: Multiple Sclerosis: Use of Disease Modifying Therapies. Employee Education System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Salt Lake City, UT

Book Review

Bever CTWolff's headache and other head pain, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177: 60, 1989